MCL - Section 213.54

Act 87 of 1980

213.54 Payment of just compensation for property if practical value or utility of remainder destroyed; zoning variance; entry upon property; purpose; notice; restitution for actual damages; “actual damage” defined; civil action for order permitting entry; contents of complaint; granting limited license for entry; terms; manner of entry under subsection (3); “environmental inspection” defined.

Sec. 4.

    (1) If the acquisition of a portion of a parcel of property actually needed by an agency would destroy the practical value or utility of the remainder of that parcel, the agency shall pay just compensation for the whole parcel. The agency may elect whether to receive title and possession of the remainder of the parcel. The question as to whether the practical value or utility of the remainder of the parcel of property is in fact destroyed shall be determined by the court or jury and incorporated in its verdict.
    (2) If the acquisition of a portion of a parcel of property actually needed by an agency would leave the remainder of the parcel in nonconformity with a zoning ordinance, the agency, before or after acquisition, may apply for a zoning variance for the remainder of the parcel. In determining whether to grant the zoning variance, the governmental entity having jurisdiction to grant the variance shall consider the potential benefits of the public use for which the property would be acquired, in addition to those criteria applicable under the relevant zoning statute, ordinance, or regulation. The agency must actually acquire the portion of the parcel of property for the proposed public use for the zoning variance to become effective for the remainder. If a variance is granted under this subsection, the property shall be considered by the governmental entity to be in conformity with the zoning ordinance for all future uses with respect to the nonconformity for which that variance was granted. However, if the property was also nonconforming for other reasons, the grant of that variance has no effect on the status of those other preexisting nonconformities. An owner shall not increase the nonconformity for which a variance is granted under this section without the consent of the governmental entity. An agency has the same right to appeal action on a zoning variance as would a property owner seeking a zoning variance. This section does not deprive a governmental entity of its discretion to grant or deny a variance.
    (3) An agency or an agent or employee of an agency may enter upon property before filing an action for the purpose of making surveys, measurements, examinations, tests, soundings, and borings; taking photographs or samplings; appraising the property; conducting an environmental inspection; conducting archaeological studies pursuant to section 106 of title I of the national historic preservation act, Public Law 89-665, 16 U.S.C. 470f; or determining whether the property is suitable to take for public purposes. The entry may be made upon reasonable notice to the owner and at reasonable hours. An entry made pursuant to this subsection shall not be construed as a taking. The owner or his or her representative shall be given a reasonable opportunity to accompany the agency's agent or employee during the entry upon the property. The agency shall make restitution for actual damage resulting from the entry, which may be recovered by special motion before the court or by separate action if an action for condemnation has not been filed. The term "actual damage" as used in this subsection does not include, and an agency shall not make restitution for, response activity, as defined in section 20101 of part 201 (environmental remediation) of the natural resources and environmental protection act, Act No. 451 of the Public Acts of 1994, being section 324.20101 of the Michigan Compiled Laws, or diminution in the value or utility of a parcel that is caused by the discovery of information as the result of a survey, an appraisal, a measurement, photography, or an environmental inspection made pursuant to this section.
    (4) If reasonable efforts to enter under subsection (3) have been obstructed or denied, the agency may commence a civil action in the circuit court in the county in which the property or any part of the property is located for an order permitting entry. The complaint shall state the facts making the entry necessary, the date on which entry is sought, and the duration and the method proposed for protecting the defendant against damage. The court may grant a limited license for entry upon such terms as justice and equity require, including the following:
    (a) A description of the purpose of the entry.
    (b) The scope of activities that are permitted.
    (c) The terms and conditions of the entry with respect to the time, place, and manner of the entry.
    (5) An entry made under subsection (3) or (4) shall be made in a manner that minimizes any damage to the property and any hardship, burden, or damage to a person in lawful possession of the property.
    (6) As used in this section, "environmental inspection" means the testing or inspection including the taking of samples of the soil, groundwater, structures, or other materials or substances in, on, or under the property for the purpose of determining whether chemical, bacteriological, radioactive, or other environmental contamination exists and, if it exists, the nature and extent of the contamination.

History: 1980, Act 87, Imd. Eff. Apr. 8, 1980 ;-- Am. 1988, Act 189, Eff. July 1, 1988 ;-- Am. 1996, Act 58, Imd. Eff. Feb. 26, 1996 ;-- Am. 1996, Act 474, Imd. Eff. Dec. 26, 1996