October 22, 2014, Introduced by Senators ANANICH, BIEDA and ANDERSON and referred to the Committee on Reforms, Restructuring and Reinventing.
A bill to require certain employers to accept and accommodate
a request for changes to an employee's work schedule; to specify
the procedure and grounds for denying a request; to require notice
or posting of certain information; and to provide remedies and
sanctions for a violation of the act.
THE PEOPLE OF THE STATE OF MICHIGAN ENACT:
Sec. 1. This act shall be known and may be cited as the
"employee scheduling accommodation act".
Sec. 2. As used in this act:
(a) "Bona fide business reason" means any of the following:
(i) The identifiable burden of additional costs to an employer,
including the cost of productivity loss, retraining or hiring
employees, or transferring employees from 1 facility to another
(ii) A significant detrimental effect on the employer's ability
to meet organizational needs or customer demand.
(iii) A significant inability of the employer, despite best
efforts, to reorganize work among existing staff.
(iv) A significant detrimental effect on business performance.
(v) Insufficiency of work during the periods an employee
proposes to work.
(vi) The need to balance competing scheduling requests when it
is not possible to grant all of those requests without a
significant detrimental effect on the employer's ability to meet
(b) "Career-related educational or training program" means an
educational or training program or program of study offered by a
public, private, or nonprofit career and technical education
school, institution of higher education, or other entity that
provides academic education, career and technical education, or
training, including remedial education or English as a second
language, and is a program that leads to a recognized postsecondary
degree or certificate and provides career awareness information.
(c) "Caregiver" means an individual who is a significant
provider of any of the following:
(i) Ongoing care or education, including responsibility for
securing the ongoing care or education, of a child.
(ii) Ongoing care, including responsibility for securing the
ongoing care, of an individual with a serious health condition who
is in a family relationship with the individual or who is a parent
of the individual and who is age 65 or older.
(d) "Child" means a biological, adopted, or foster child, a
stepchild, a legal ward, or a child of an individual standing in
loco parentis to that child, who is either under age 18 or is age
18 or older and incapable of self-care because of a mental or
(e) "Domestic partner" means the individual recognized as
being in a relationship with an employee under any domestic
partnership, civil union, or similar law of the state in which the
(f) "Employee" means an individual who performs services for
an employer in this state, who is compensated on an hourly basis,
and for whom the employer is required to provide a federal form
1099. Employee does not include an employee of the federal
(g) "Employer" means any person, excluding this state and the
federal government, engaged in commerce or in any industry or
activity affecting commerce that employs 15 or more employees and
includes any person that acts, directly or indirectly, in the
interest of such an employer as to any of the employees of the
employer, and any successor in interest of an employer. For
purposes of determining the number of employees, all employees
performing work for compensation on a full-time, part-time, or
temporary basis shall be counted, except that if the number of
those employees who perform work for compensation fluctuates, the
number may be determined for a calendar year based on the average
number of those employees who performed work for compensation
during the preceding calendar year.
(h) "Family relationship" means a relationship with a child,
spouse, domestic partner, parent, grandchild, grandparent, sibling,
or parent of a spouse or domestic partner.
(i) "Minimum number of expected work hours" means the minimum
number of hours an employee will be assigned to work on a weekly or
(j) "Parent" means a biological or adoptive parent, a
stepparent, or an individual who stood in a parental relationship
to an employee when the employee was a child.
(k) "Parental relationship" means a relationship in which an
individual assumed the obligations incident to parenthood for a
child and discharged those obligations before the child reached
(l) "Part-time employee" means an individual who works fewer
than 30 hours per week on average during any 1-month period.
(m) "Retail, food service, or cleaning employee" means an
individual employee who is employed in an occupation described in
subparagraphs (i) to (iii) and, except as excluded in subparagraph
(iv), as follows:
(i) Retail sales occupations, including first-line supervisors
of sales workers, cashiers, gaming change individuals and booth
cashiers, counter and rental clerks, parts salespersons, and retail
(ii) Food preparation and serving related occupations,
including supervisors of food preparation and serving workers,
cooks and food preparation workers, food and beverage serving
workers, and other food preparation and serving related workers.
(iii) Building cleaning occupations, including janitors and
cleaners, maids and housekeeping cleaners, and building cleaning
(iv) Retail, food service, or cleaning employee does not
include any individual employed in a bona fide executive,
administrative, or professional capacity, as defined for purposes
of section 13(a)(1) of the fair labor standards act of 1938, 29 USC
(n) "Serious health condition" means an illness, injury,
impairment, or physical or mental condition that involves
continuing treatment by a health care provider or inpatient care in
a hospital, hospice, or residential medical care facility.
(o) "Sibling" means a brother or sister, whether related by
half blood, whole blood, or adoption, or as a stepsibling.
(p) "Split shift" means a schedule of daily hours in which the
hours worked are not consecutive, except that a schedule in which
the total time out for meals does not exceed 1 hour is not treated
as a split shift.
(q) "Spouse" means an individual with whom an individual
entered into a marriage as defined or recognized under state law in
the state in which the marriage was entered into.
(r) "Work schedule" means those days and times within a work
period when an employee is required by an employer to perform the
duties of the employee's employment for which the employee will
(s) "Work schedule change" means any modification to an
employee's work schedule, such as an addition or reduction of
hours, cancellation of a shift, or a change in the date or time of
a work shift, by an employer.
(t) "Work shift" means the specific hours of the workday
during which an employee works.
Sec. 3. (1) An employee may apply to his or her employer to
request a change in the terms and conditions of employment as the
terms relate to any the following:
(a) The number of hours the employee is required to work or be
on call for work.
(b) The times when the employee is required to work or be on
call for work.
(c) The location where the employee is required to work.
(d) The amount of notification the employee receives of work
(e) Minimizing fluctuations in the number of hours the
employee is scheduled to work on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis.
(2) If an employee applies to his or her employer to request a
change in the terms and conditions of employment as set forth in
subsection (1), the employer shall engage in a timely, good faith
interactive process with the employee that includes a discussion of
potential schedule changes that would meet the employee's needs.
The interactive process shall result in either granting or denying
the request. If the request is denied, the employer shall consider
alternatives to the proposed change that might meet the employee's
needs and shall grant or deny a request for an alternative change.
The employer shall provide the employee with a written statement
with the reason for denial of a request.
(3) If information provided by the employee making a request
for a change requires clarification, the employer shall explain
what further information is needed and give the employee reasonable
time to produce the information.
Sec. 4. (1) If an employee makes a request for a change in the
terms and conditions of employment under section 3 because of a
serious health condition of the employee, due to the employee's
responsibilities as a caregiver, or due to the employee's
enrollment in a career-related educational or training program, or
if a part-time employee makes a request for such a change for a
reason related to a second job, the employer shall grant the
request unless the employer has a bona fide business reason for
denying the request.
(2) If an employee makes a request for a change in the terms
and conditions of employment under section 3 for a reason other
than the reasons set forth in subsection (1), the employer may deny
the request for any reason that is not unlawful. If the employer
denies such a request, the employer shall provide the employee with
the reason for the denial, including whether the reason was a bona
fide business reason.
Sec. 5. (1) Unless an employee is scheduled for fewer than 4
hours of work, the employer shall pay a retail, food service, or
cleaning employee for at least 4 hours at the employee's regular
pay rate for each day on which the employee reports for work under
specific instructions but is given less than 4 hours of work. If
the employee is scheduled for less than 4 hours, the employee shall
be paid for the employee's scheduled hours for that day even if
given less than the scheduled hours of work.
(2) An employer shall pay a retail, food service, or cleaning
employee for at least 1 hour at the employee's regular pay rate for
each day the employee is given specific instructions to contact the
employer, or wait to be contacted by the employer, less than 24
hours in advance of the start of a potential work shift to
determine whether the employee must report to work for the shift.
(3) An employer shall pay a retail, food service, or cleaning
employee for 1 additional hour at the retail, food service, or
cleaning employee's regular pay rate for each day during which the
employee works a split shift.
Sec. 6. (1) On or before a new retail, food service, or
cleaning employee's first day of work, the employer shall inform
the employee in writing of the employee's work schedule and the
minimum number of expected work hours the employee will be assigned
to work per month.
(2) Except as provided in subsections (3) and (6), if the
employee's work schedule changes after the notice under subsection
(1), the employer shall provide the employee with his or her new
work schedule not less than 14 days before the first day of the new
work schedule. If the expected minimum number of work hours the
employee will be assigned changes, the employer shall provide
notification of the change not less than 14 days before the first
day the change takes effect. This subsection does not prohibit an
employer from providing greater advance notice of an employee's
work schedule than is required under this section.
(3) An employer may make work schedule changes as needed,
including offering additional hours of work to a retail, food
service, or cleaning employee beyond those previously scheduled,
but the employer shall provide 1 extra hour of pay at the
employee's regular rate for each work shift that is changed with
less than 24 hours' notice. The requirement for the extra hour of
pay does not apply if the need to schedule the employee is due to
the unforeseen unavailability of an employee previously scheduled
to work that work shift or as provided in subsection (6).
(4) The notifications required under subsections (1) and (2)
shall be made to the employee in writing. This subsection does not
prohibit an employer from using any additional means of notifying
an employee of the employee's work schedule.
(5) Each employer employing a retail, food service, or
cleaning employee subject to this act shall post the work schedule
and keep it posted in a place in every establishment where the
retail, food service, or cleaning employee is employed and can
readily observe the work schedule. An employer may comply with this
subsection by making the schedule available and accessible by
electronic means to all employees.
(6) This section does not prohibit an employer from allowing a
retail, food service, or cleaning employee to work in place of
another employee who has been scheduled to work a particular shift
if the change in schedule is mutually agreed upon by the employees.
The posting and payment requirements in subsections (2) and (3) do
not apply to such a voluntary shift trade.
Sec. 7. Sections 5 and 6 do not apply during periods when
regular operations of the employer are suspended due to events
beyond the employer's control.
Sec. 8. (1) An employer shall not interfere with, restrain, or
deny the exercise of or the attempt to exercise any right of any
employee as set forth in sections 3 and 4 or of a retail, food
service, or cleaning employee as set forth in sections 5 and 6.
(2) An employer shall not discharge, threaten to discharge,
demote, suspend, reduce work hours of, or take any other adverse
employment action against any employee in retaliation for
exercising the rights of an employee under this act or opposing any
practice prohibited by this act. Retaliation includes taking an
adverse employment action against any employee based on that
employee's eligibility or perceived eligibility to request or
receive a change in the terms and conditions of employment, as
described in section 3, for a reason set forth in section 4(1).
(3) A person shall not discharge or in any other manner
discriminate against any individual because the individual has done
any of the following:
(a) Filed any charge or instituted or caused to be instituted
any proceeding under or related to this act.
(b) Given, or is about to give, any information in connection
with any inquiry or proceeding relating to any right provided under
(c) Testified, or is about to testify, in any inquiry or
proceeding relating to any right provided under this act.
Sec. 9. (1) An employer that violates section 8 is liable to
any affected individual for damages and any appropriate equitable
relief, including employment, reinstatement, and promotion.
(2) An action for damages or equitable relief under subsection
(1) may be brought against an employer in a court of competent
jurisdiction by 1 or more employees on their own behalf or on
behalf of themselves and other similarly situated employees.
(3) In an action under this section, the court shall, in
addition to damages and equitable relief, award reasonable attorney
fees, reasonable expert witness fees, and other costs of the action
to a prevailing plaintiff.
Sec. 10. An employer that willfully and repeatedly violates
section 6(1), (4), or (5) is guilty of a state civil infraction and
may be ordered to pay a civil fine of not more than $100.00 per
violation. An employer that willfully and repeatedly violates
section 8(2) or (3) is guilty of a state civil infraction and may
be ordered to pay a civil fine of not more than $1,100.00 per
Sec. 11. (1) Except as provided in subsection (2), an action
shall not be brought under this act more than 2 years after the
date of the last alleged violation.
(2) An action for a willful violation of section 8 may be
brought within 3 years after the date of the last alleged
Sec. 12. (1) Each employer shall post, and keep posted, in a
conspicuous place on the premises of the employer where notices to
employees and applicants for employment are customarily posted, a
notice setting forth excerpts from, or summaries of, the pertinent
provisions of this act and information pertaining to the filing of
a complaint under this act.
(2) An employer that willfully violates this section is guilty
of a state civil infraction and may be ordered to pay a civil fine
of not more than $100.00 for each separate offense.
Sec. 13. This act provides minimum requirements and does not
preempt, limit, or otherwise affect the applicability of any other
law, regulation, requirement, policy, or standard that provides for
greater rights for employees than are required in this act.
Sec. 14. This act does not apply to any employee covered by a
bona fide collective bargaining agreement if the terms of the
collective bargaining agreement include terms that govern work