PROBATE CODE OF 1939 (EXCERPT)
Act 288 of 1939
712A.30 “Offense” and “victim” defined; order of restitution.
(1) For purposes of this section and section 31:
(a) “Juvenile offense” means a violation by a juvenile of a penal law of this state or a violation by a juvenile of an ordinance of a local unit of government of this state punishable by imprisonment or by a fine that is not a civil fine.
(b) “Victim” means an individual who suffers direct or threatened physical, financial, or emotional harm as a result of the commission of a juvenile offense. For purposes of subsections (2), (3), (6), (8), (9), and (13), victim includes a sole proprietorship, partnership, corporation, association, governmental entity, or other legal entity that suffers direct physical or financial harm as a result of the commission of a juvenile offense.
(2) Except as provided in subsection (8), at the dispositional hearing for a juvenile offense, the court shall order, in addition to or in lieu of any other disposition authorized by law, that the juvenile make full restitution to any victim of the juvenile's course of conduct that gives rise to the disposition or to the victim's estate.
(3) If a juvenile offense results in damage to or loss or destruction of property of a victim of the juvenile offense, or results in the seizure or impoundment of property of a victim of the juvenile offense, the order of restitution may require that the juvenile do 1 or more of the following, as applicable:
(a) Return the property to the owner of the property or to a person designated by the owner.
(b) If return of the property under subdivision (a) is impossible, impractical, or inadequate, pay an amount equal to the greater of subparagraph (i) or (ii), less the value, determined as of the date the property is returned, of that property or any part of the property that is returned:
(i) The value of the property on the date of the damage, loss, or destruction.
(ii) The value of the property on the date of disposition.
(c) Pay the costs of the seizure or impoundment, or both.
(4) If a juvenile offense results in physical or psychological injury to a victim, the order of restitution may require that the juvenile do 1 or more of the following, as applicable:
(a) Pay an amount equal to the cost of actual medical and related professional services and devices relating to physical and psychological care.
(b) Pay an amount equal to the cost of actual physical and occupational therapy and rehabilitation.
(c) Reimburse the victim or the victim's estate for after-tax income loss suffered by the victim as a result of the juvenile offense.
(d) Pay an amount equal to the cost of psychological and medical treatment for members of the victim's family that has been incurred as a result of the juvenile offense.
(e) Pay an amount equal to the costs of actual homemaking and child care expenses incurred as a result of the juvenile offense.
(5) If a juvenile offense resulting in bodily injury also results in the death of a victim, the order of restitution may require that the juvenile pay an amount equal to the cost of actual funeral and related services.
(6) If the victim or victim's estate consents, the order of restitution may require that the juvenile make restitution in services in lieu of money.
(7) If the victim is deceased, the court shall order that the restitution be made to the victim's estate.
(8) The court shall order restitution to the crime victims compensation board or to any individuals, partnerships, corporations, associations, governmental entities, or any other legal entities that have compensated the victim or victim's estate for a loss incurred by the victim to the extent of the compensation paid for that loss. The court shall also order restitution, for the costs of services provided, to persons or entities that have provided services to the victim as a result of the juvenile offense. Services that are subject to restitution under this subsection include, but are not limited to, shelter, food, clothing, and transportation. However, an order of restitution shall require that all restitution to a victim or victim's estate under the order be made before any restitution to any other person or entity under that order is made. The court shall not order restitution to be paid to a victim or victim's estate if the victim or victim's estate has received or is to receive compensation for that loss, and the court shall state on the record with specificity the reasons for its actions. If an entity entitled to restitution under this subsection for compensating the victim or the victim's estate cannot or refuses to be reimbursed for that compensation, the restitution paid for that entity shall be deposited by the state treasurer in the crime victim's rights fund created under section 4 of Act No. 196 of the Public Acts of 1989, being section 780.904 of the Michigan Compiled Laws, or its successor fund.
(9) Any amount paid to a victim or victim's estate under an order of restitution shall be set off against any amount later recovered as compensatory damages by the victim or the victim's estate in any federal or state civil proceeding and shall reduce the amount payable to a victim or a victim's estate by an award from the crime victims compensation board made after an order of restitution under this section.
(10) If not otherwise provided by the court under this subsection, restitution shall be made immediately. However, the court may require that the juvenile make restitution under this section within a specified period or in specified installments.
(11) If the juvenile is placed on probation, any restitution ordered under this section shall be a condition of that probation. The court may revoke probation if the juvenile fails to comply with the order and if the juvenile has not made a good faith effort to comply with the order. In determining whether to revoke probation, the court shall consider the juvenile's employment status, earning ability, and financial resources, the willfulness of the juvenile's failure to pay, and any other special circumstances that may have a bearing on the juvenile's ability to pay.
(12) A juvenile who is required to pay restitution and who is not in willful default of the payment of the restitution may at any time petition the court to modify the method of payment. If the court determines that payment under the order will impose a manifest hardship on the juvenile or his or her immediate family, the court may modify the method of payment.
(13) An order of restitution entered under this section remains effective until it is satisfied in full. An order of restitution is a judgment and lien against all property of the individual ordered to pay restitution for the amount specified in the order of restitution. The lien may be recorded as provided by law. An order of restitution may be enforced by the prosecuting attorney, a victim, a victim's estate, or any other person or entity named in the order to receive the restitution in the same manner as a judgment in a civil action or a lien.
(14) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, a juvenile shall not be detained for a violation of probation, or otherwise, for failure to pay restitution as ordered under this section unless the court determines that the juvenile has the resources to pay the ordered restitution and has not made a good faith effort to do so.
(15) If the court determines that the juvenile is or will be unable to pay all of the restitution ordered, after notice to the juvenile's parent and an opportunity for the parent to be heard, the court may order the parent or parents having supervisory responsibility for the juvenile at the time of the acts upon which an order of restitution is based to pay any portion of the restitution ordered that is outstanding. An order under this subsection does not relieve the juvenile of his or her obligation to pay restitution, but the amount owed by the juvenile shall be offset by any amount paid by his or her parent. As used in this subsection, “parent” does not include a foster parent.
(16) If the court orders a parent to pay restitution under subsection (15), the court shall take into account the financial resources of the parent and the burden that the payment of restitution will impose, with due regard to any other moral or legal financial obligations that the parent may have. If a parent is required to pay restitution under subsection (15), the court shall provide for payment to be made in specified installments and within a specified period of time.
(17) A parent who has been ordered to pay restitution under subsection (15) may petition the court for a modification of the amount of restitution owed by the parent or for a cancellation of any unpaid portion of the parent's obligation. The court shall cancel all or part of the parent's obligation due if the court determines that payment of the amount due will impose a manifest hardship on the parent.
(18) In each case in which payment of restitution is ordered as a condition of probation, the juvenile caseworker or probation officer assigned to the case shall review the case not less than twice yearly to ensure that restitution is being paid as ordered. The final review shall be conducted not less than 60 days before the expiration of the probationary period. If the juvenile caseworker or probation officer determines the restitution is not being paid as ordered, the juvenile caseworker or probation officer shall file a written report of the violation with the court on a form prescribed by the state court administrative office. The report shall include a statement of the amount of the arrearage and any reasons for the arrearage that are known by the juvenile caseworker or probation officer. The juvenile caseworker or probation officer shall immediately provide a copy of the report to the prosecuting attorney. If a motion is filed or other proceedings are initiated to enforce payment of restitution and the court determines that restitution is not being paid or has not been paid as ordered by the court, the court shall promptly take action necessary to compel compliance.
(19) If the court determines that an individual who is ordered to pay restitution under this section is remanded to the jurisdiction of the department of corrections, the court shall provide a copy of the order of restitution to the department of corrections when the court determines that the individual is remanded to the department's jurisdiction.
History: Add. 1993, Act 344, Eff. May 1, 1994
Am. 1996, Act 123, Eff. May 1, 1996
Am. 1996, Act 561, Eff. June 1, 1997
Popular Name: Probate Code
Popular Name: Juvenile Code
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