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Michigan Compiled Laws Complete Through PA 280 of 2014
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Section 566.31

UNIFORM FRAUDULENT TRANSFER ACT (EXCERPT)
Act 434 of 1998


566.31 Definitions.

Sec. 1.

As used in this act:

(a) "Affiliate" means 1 or more of the following:

(i) A person who directly or indirectly owns, controls, or holds with power to vote 20% or more of the outstanding voting securities of the debtor, other than a person who holds the securities in either of the following circumstances:

(A) As a fiduciary or agent without sole discretionary power to vote the securities.

(B) Solely to secure a debt, if the person has not exercised the power to vote.

(ii) A corporation 20% or more of whose outstanding voting securities are directly or indirectly owned, controlled, or held with power to vote by the debtor or a person who directly or indirectly owns, controls, or holds, with power to vote, 20% or more of the outstanding voting securities of the debtor, other than a person who holds the securities in either of the following circumstances:

(A) As a fiduciary or agent without sole power to vote the securities.

(B) Solely to secure a debt, if the person has not in fact exercised the power to vote.

(iii) A person whose business is operated by the debtor under a lease or other agreement, or a person substantially all of whose assets are controlled by the debtor.

(iv) A person who operates the debtor's business under a lease or other agreement or controls substantially all of the debtor's assets.

(b) "Asset" means property of a debtor, but the term does not include any of the following:

(i) Property to the extent it is encumbered by a valid lien.

(ii) Property to the extent it is generally exempt under nonbankruptcy law.

(iii) An interest in property held in tenancy by the entireties to the extent it is not subject to process by a creditor holding a claim against only 1 tenant.

(c) "Claim" means a right to payment, whether or not the right is reduced to judgment, liquidated, unliquidated, fixed, contingent, matured, unmatured, disputed, undisputed, legal, equitable, secured, or unsecured.

(d) "Creditor" means a person who has a claim.

(e) "Debt" means liability on a claim.

(f) "Debtor" means a person who is liable on a claim.

(g) "Insider" includes all of the following:

(i) If the debtor is an individual, all of the following:

(A) A relative of the debtor or of a general partner of the debtor.

(B) A partnership in which the debtor is a general partner.

(C) A general partner in a partnership described in sub-subparagraph (B).

(D) A corporation of which the debtor is a director, officer, or person in control.

(ii) If the debtor is a corporation, all of the following:

(A) A director of the debtor.

(B) An officer of the debtor.

(C) A person in control of the debtor.

(D) A partnership in which the debtor is a general partner.

(E) A general partner in a partnership described in sub-subparagraph (D).

(F) A relative of a general partner, director, officer, or person in control of the debtor.

(iii) If the debtor is a partnership, all of the following:

(A) A general partner in the debtor.

(B) A relative of a general partner in, a general partner of, or a person in control of the debtor.

(C) Another partnership in which the debtor is a general partner.

(D) A general partner in a partnership described in sub-subparagraph (C).

(E) A person in control of the debtor.

(iv) An affiliate, or an insider of an affiliate as if the affiliate were the debtor.

(v) A managing agent of the debtor.

(h) "Lien" means a charge against or an interest in property to secure payment of a debt or performance of an obligation, and includes a security interest created by agreement, a judicial lien obtained by legal or equitable process or proceedings, a common-law lien, or a statutory lien.

(i) "Person" means an individual, partnership, corporation, association, organization, government or governmental subdivision or agency, business trust, estate, trust, or any other legal or commercial entity.

(j) "Property" means anything that may be the subject of ownership.

(k) "Relative" means an individual related by consanguinity within the third degree as determined by the common law, a spouse, or an individual related to a spouse within the third degree as so determined, and includes an individual in an adoptive relationship within the third degree.

(l) "Transfer" means every mode, direct or indirect, absolute or conditional, voluntary or involuntary, of disposing of or parting with an asset or an interest in an asset. Transfer includes payment of money, release, lease, and creation of a lien or other encumbrance. Transfer does not include any of the following:

(i) The lapse, release, waiver, or disclaimer of a power of appointment given to a donee by a third party. As used in this subparagraph, "donee" means that term as defined in section 2 of the powers of appointment act of 1967, 1967 PA 224, MCL 556.112.

(ii) The disposing of or parting with an asset or interest in an asset held in trust to the person who created the trust if all of the following apply:

(A) The trust is an irrevocable trust for the benefit of third parties.

(B) The trust is a grantor trust with regard to the person for income tax purposes pursuant to sections 671 to 679 of the internal revenue code, 26 USC 671 to 679.

(C) The trustee has the discretionary authority to reimburse or advance trust property to the person for taxes concerning income attributable to the trust property.

(D) The disposing of or parting with the asset or interest in the asset is the exercise by the trustee of the discretionary authority described in sub-subparagraph (C).

(m) "Valid lien" means a lien that is effective against the holder of a judicial lien subsequently obtained by legal or equitable process or proceedings.


History: 1998, Act 434, Imd. Eff. Dec. 30, 1998 ;-- Am. 2009, Act 44, Eff. Apr. 1, 2010


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