THE CODE OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE (EXCERPT)
Act 175 of 1927
769.1a Order of restitution.
(1) As used in this section:
(a) "Crime victim services commission" means that term as described in section 2 of 1976 PA 223, MCL 18.352.
(b) "Victim" means an individual who suffers direct or threatened physical, financial, or emotional harm as a result of the commission of a felony, misdemeanor, or ordinance violation. For purposes of subsections (2), (3), (6), (8), (9), and (13), victim includes a sole proprietorship, partnership, corporation, association, governmental entity, or any other legal entity that suffers direct physical or financial harm as a result of a felony, misdemeanor, or ordinance violation.
(2) Except as provided in subsection (8), when sentencing a defendant convicted of a felony, misdemeanor, or ordinance violation, the court shall order, in addition to or in lieu of any other penalty authorized by law or in addition to any other penalty required by law, that the defendant make full restitution to any victim of the defendant's course of conduct that gives rise to the conviction or to the victim's estate.
(3) If a felony, misdemeanor, or ordinance violation results in damage to or loss or destruction of property of a victim of the felony, misdemeanor, or ordinance violation or results in the seizure or impoundment of property of a victim of the felony, misdemeanor, or ordinance violation, the order of restitution may require that the defendant do 1 or more of the following, as applicable:
(a) Return the property to the owner of the property or to a person designated by the owner.
(b) If return of the property under subdivision (a) is impossible, impractical, or inadequate, pay an amount equal to the greater of subparagraph (i) or (ii), less the value, determined as of the date the property is returned, of that property or any part of the property that is returned:
(i) The fair market value of the property on the date of the damage, loss, or destruction. However, if the fair market value of the property cannot be determined or is impractical to ascertain, then the replacement value of the property shall be utilized in lieu of the fair market value.
(ii) The fair market value of the property on the date of sentencing. However, if the fair market value of the property cannot be determined or is impractical to ascertain, then the replacement value of the property shall be utilized in lieu of the fair market value.
(c) Pay the cost of the seizure or impoundment, or both.
(4) If a felony, misdemeanor, or ordinance violation results in physical or psychological injury to a victim, the order of restitution may require that the defendant do 1 or more of the following, as applicable:
(a) Pay an amount equal to the cost of actual medical and related professional services and devices relating to physical and psychological care.
(b) Pay an amount equal to the cost of actual physical and occupational therapy and rehabilitation.
(c) Reimburse the victim or the victim's estate for after-tax income loss suffered by the victim as a result of the felony, misdemeanor, or ordinance violation.
(d) Pay an amount equal to the cost of psychological and medical treatment for members of the victim's family that has been incurred as a result of the felony, misdemeanor, or ordinance violation.
(e) Pay an amount equal to the cost of actual homemaking and child care expenses incurred as a result of the felony, misdemeanor, or ordinance violation.
(5) If a felony, misdemeanor, or ordinance violation resulting in bodily injury also results in the death of a victim, the order of restitution may require that the defendant pay an amount equal to the cost of actual funeral and related services.
(6) If the victim or the victim's estate consents, the order of restitution may require that the defendant make restitution in services in lieu of money.
(7) If the victim is deceased, the court shall order that the restitution be made to the victim's estate.
(8) The court shall order restitution to the crime victim services commission or to any individuals, partnerships, corporations, associations, governmental entities, or other legal entities that have compensated the victim or the victim's estate for a loss incurred by the victim to the extent of the compensation paid for that loss. The court shall also order restitution for the costs of services provided to persons or entities that have provided services to the victim as a result of the felony, misdemeanor, or ordinance violation. Services that are subject to restitution under this subsection include, but are not limited to, shelter, food, clothing, and transportation. However, an order of restitution shall require that all restitution to a victim or a victim's estate under the order be made before any restitution to any other person or entity under that order is made. The court shall not order restitution to be paid to a victim or victim's estate if the victim or victim's estate has received or is to receive compensation for that loss, and the court shall state on the record with specificity the reasons for its action. If an entity entitled to restitution under this subsection for compensating the victim or the victim's estate cannot or refuses to be reimbursed for that compensation, the restitution paid for that entity shall be deposited by the state treasurer in the crime victim's rights fund created under section 4 of 1989 PA 196, MCL 780.904, or its successor fund.
(9) Any amount paid to a victim or a victim's estate under an order of restitution shall be set off against any amount later recovered as compensatory damages by the victim or the victim's estate in any federal or state civil proceeding and shall reduce the amount payable to a victim or a victim's estate by an award from the crime victim services commission made after an order of restitution under this section.
(10) If not otherwise provided by the court under this subsection, restitution shall be made immediately. However, the court may require that the defendant make restitution under this section within a specified period or in specified installments.
(11) If the defendant is placed on probation or paroled or the court imposes a conditional sentence under section 3 of this chapter, any restitution ordered under this section shall be a condition of that probation, parole, or sentence. The court may revoke probation or impose imprisonment under the conditional sentence and the parole board may revoke parole if the defendant fails to comply with the order and if the defendant has not made a good faith effort to comply with the order. In determining whether to revoke probation or parole or impose imprisonment, the court or parole board shall consider the defendant's employment status, earning ability, and financial resources, the willfulness of the defendant's failure to pay, and any other special circumstances that may have a bearing on the defendant's ability to pay.
(12) A defendant who is required to pay restitution and who is not in willful default of the payment of the restitution may at any time petition the sentencing judge or his or her successor to modify the method of payment. If the court determines that payment under the order will impose a manifest hardship on the defendant or his or her immediate family, the court may modify the method of payment.
(13) An order of restitution entered under this section remains effective until it is satisfied in full. An order of restitution is a judgment and lien against all property of the defendant for the amount specified in the order of restitution. The lien may be recorded as provided by law. An order of restitution may be enforced by the prosecuting attorney, a victim, a victim's estate, or any other person or entity named in the order to receive the restitution in the same manner as a judgment in a civil action or a lien.
(14) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, a defendant shall not be imprisoned, jailed, or incarcerated for a violation of probation or parole or otherwise for failure to pay restitution as ordered under this section unless the court or parole board determines that the defendant has the resources to pay the ordered restitution and has not made a good faith effort to do so.
(15) In each case in which payment of restitution is ordered as a condition of probation, the probation officer assigned to the case shall review the case not less than twice yearly to ensure that restitution is being paid as ordered. The final review shall be conducted not less than 60 days before the probationary period expires. If the probation officer determines that restitution is not being paid as ordered, the probation officer shall file a written report of the violation with the court on a form prescribed by the state court administrative office. The report shall include a statement of the amount of the arrearage and any reasons for the arrearage known by the probation officer. The probation officer shall immediately provide a copy of the report to the prosecuting attorney. If a motion is filed or other proceedings are initiated to enforce payment of restitution and the court determines that restitution is not being paid or has not been paid as ordered by the court, the court shall promptly take action necessary to compel compliance.
(16) If a defendant who is ordered to pay restitution under this section is remanded to the jurisdiction of the department of corrections, the court shall provide a copy of the order of restitution to the department of corrections when the defendant is ordered remanded to the department's jurisdiction.
History: Add. 1985, Act 89, Imd. Eff. July 10, 1985
Am. 1993, Act 343, Eff. May 1, 1994
Am. 1996, Act 122, Eff. May 1, 1996
Am. 1996, Act 560, Eff. June 1, 1997
Am. 1998, Act 231, Imd. Eff. July 3, 1998
Am. 2009, Act 27, Eff. July 1, 2009
Compiler's Notes: For transfer of powers and duties of Michigan parole and commutation board to Michigan parole board within department of corrections, and abolishment of Michigan parole and commutation board, see E.R.O. No. 2011-3, compiled at MCL 791.305.
Effective Date: Enacting section 1 of Act 27 of 2009 provides:"Enacting section 1. This amendatory act takes effect July 1, 2009, and applies only to crimes committed on or after that date."