WILLIAM VAN REGENMORTER CRIME VICTIM'S RIGHTS ACT (EXCERPT)
Act 87 of 1985
780.766 "Victim" defined; restitution; order; condition of probation, parole, or sentence; revocation of probation or parole; petition to modify payment method; lien; enforcement; failure to pay restitution; payment by parent of juvenile; definitions; review; report or petition; compliance; copy of order to department of corrections; disposition of unclaimed restitution; amendment of order; effect of bankruptcy; victim as minor.
(1) As used in this section only, "victim" means an individual who suffers direct or threatened physical, financial, or emotional harm as a result of the commission of a crime. As used in subsections (2), (3), (6), (8), (9), and (13) only, victim includes a sole proprietorship, partnership, corporation, association, governmental entity, or any other legal entity that suffers direct physical or financial harm as a result of a crime.
(2) Except as provided in subsection (8), when sentencing a defendant convicted of a crime, the court shall order, in addition to or in lieu of any other penalty authorized by law or in addition to any other penalty required by law, that the defendant make full restitution to any victim of the defendant's course of conduct that gives rise to the conviction or to the victim's estate. For an offense that is resolved by assignment of the defendant to youthful trainee status, by a delayed sentence or deferred judgment of guilt, or in another way that is not an acquittal or unconditional dismissal, the court shall order the restitution required under this section.
(3) If a crime results in damage to or loss or destruction of property of a victim of the crime or results in the seizure or impoundment of property of a victim of the crime, the order of restitution shall require that the defendant do 1 or more of the following, as applicable:
(a) Return the property to the owner of the property or to a person designated by the owner.
(b) If return of the property under subdivision (a) is impossible, impractical, or inadequate, pay an amount equal to the greater of subparagraph (i) or (ii), less the value, determined as of the date the property is returned, of that property or any part of the property that is returned:
(i) The fair market value of the property on the date of the damage, loss, or destruction. However, if the fair market value of the property cannot be determined or is impractical to ascertain, then the replacement value of the property shall be utilized in lieu of the fair market value.
(ii) The fair market value of the property on the date of sentencing. However, if the fair market value of the property cannot be determined or is impractical to ascertain, then the replacement value of the property shall be utilized in lieu of the fair market value.
(c) Pay the costs of the seizure or impoundment, or both.
(4) If a crime results in physical or psychological injury to a victim, the order of restitution shall require that the defendant do 1 or more of the following, as applicable:
(a) Pay an amount equal to the reasonably determined cost of medical and related professional services and devices actually incurred and reasonably expected to be incurred relating to physical and psychological care.
(b) Pay an amount equal to the reasonably determined cost of physical and occupational therapy and rehabilitation actually incurred and reasonably expected to be incurred.
(c) Reimburse the victim or the victim's estate for after-tax income loss suffered by the victim as a result of the crime.
(d) Pay an amount equal to the reasonably determined cost of psychological and medical treatment for members of the victim's family actually incurred and reasonably expected to be incurred as a result of the crime.
(e) Pay an amount equal to the reasonably determined costs of homemaking and child care expenses actually incurred and reasonably expected to be incurred as a result of the crime or, if homemaking or child care is provided without compensation by a relative, friend, or any other person, an amount equal to the costs that would reasonably be incurred as a result of the crime for that homemaking and child care, based on the rates in the area for comparable services.
(f) Pay an amount equal to the cost of actual funeral and related services.
(g) If the deceased victim could be claimed as a dependent by his or her parent or guardian on the parent's or guardian's federal, state, or local income tax returns, pay an amount equal to the loss of the tax deduction or tax credit. The amount of reimbursement shall be estimated for each year the victim could reasonably be claimed as a dependent.
(h) Pay an amount equal to income actually lost by the spouse, parent, sibling, child, or grandparent of the victim because the family member left his or her employment, temporarily or permanently, to care for the victim because of the injury.
(5) If a crime resulting in bodily injury also results in the death of a victim or serious impairment of a body function of a victim, the court may order up to 3 times the amount of restitution otherwise allowed under this section. As used in this subsection, "serious impairment of a body function of a victim" includes, but is not limited to, 1 or more of the following:
(a) Loss of a limb or use of a limb.
(b) Loss of a hand or foot or use of a hand or foot.
(c) Loss of an eye or use of an eye or ear.
(d) Loss or substantial impairment of a bodily function.
(e) Serious visible disfigurement.
(f) A comatose state that lasts for more than 3 days.
(g) Measurable brain damage or mental impairment.
(h) A skull fracture or other serious bone fracture.
(i) Subdural hemorrhage or subdural hematoma.
(j) Loss of a body organ.
(6) If the victim or victim's estate consents, the order of restitution may require that the defendant make restitution in services in lieu of money.
(7) If the victim is deceased or dies, the court shall order that the restitution or remaining restitution be made to those entitled to inherit from the victim's estate.
(8) The court shall order restitution to the crime victim services commission or to any individuals, partnerships, corporations, associations, governmental entities, or other legal entities that have compensated the victim or the victim's estate for a loss incurred by the victim to the extent of the compensation paid for that loss. The court shall also order restitution for the costs of services provided to persons or entities that have provided services to the victim as a result of the crime. Services that are subject to restitution under this subsection include, but are not limited to, shelter, food, clothing, and transportation. However, an order of restitution shall require that all restitution to a victim or victim's estate under the order be made before any restitution to any other person or entity under that order is made. The court shall not order restitution to be paid to a victim or victim's estate if the victim or victim's estate has received or is to receive compensation for that loss, and the court shall state on the record with specificity the reasons for its action.
(9) Any amount paid to a victim or victim's estate under an order of restitution shall be set off against any amount later recovered as compensatory damages by the victim or the victim's estate in any federal or state civil proceeding and shall reduce the amount payable to a victim or a victim's estate by an award from the crime victim services commission made after an order of restitution under this section.
(10) If not otherwise provided by the court under this subsection, restitution shall be made immediately. However, the court may require that the defendant make restitution under this section within a specified period or in specified installments.
(11) If the defendant is placed on probation or paroled or the court imposes a conditional sentence as provided in section 3 of chapter IX of the code of criminal procedure, 1927 PA 175, MCL 769.3, any restitution ordered under this section shall be a condition of that probation, parole, or sentence. The court may revoke probation or impose imprisonment under the conditional sentence and the parole board may revoke parole if the defendant fails to comply with the order and if the defendant has not made a good faith effort to comply with the order. In determining whether to revoke probation or parole or impose imprisonment, the court or parole board shall consider the defendant's employment status, earning ability, and financial resources, the willfulness of the defendant's failure to pay, and any other special circumstances that may have a bearing on the defendant's ability to pay.
(12) Subject to subsection (18), a defendant who is required to pay restitution and who is not in willful default of the payment of the restitution may at any time petition the sentencing judge or his or her successor to modify the method of payment. If the court determines that payment under the order will impose a manifest hardship on the defendant or his or her immediate family, and if the court also determines that modifying the method of payment will not impose a manifest hardship on the victim, the court may modify the method of payment.
(13) An order of restitution entered under this section remains effective until it is satisfied in full. An order of restitution is a judgment and lien against all property of the defendant for the amount specified in the order of restitution. The lien may be recorded as provided by law. An order of restitution may be enforced by the prosecuting attorney, a victim, a victim's estate, or any other person or entity named in the order to receive the restitution in the same manner as a judgment in a civil action or a lien.
(14) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, a defendant shall not be imprisoned, jailed, or incarcerated for a violation of probation or parole or otherwise for failure to pay restitution as ordered under this section unless the court or parole board determines that the defendant has the resources to pay the ordered restitution and has not made a good faith effort to do so.
(15) If the court determines that a juvenile is or will be unable to pay all of the restitution ordered, after notice to the juvenile's parent or parents and an opportunity for the parent or parents to be heard the court may order the parent or parents having supervisory responsibility for the juvenile at the time of the acts upon which an order of restitution is based to pay any portion of the restitution ordered that is outstanding. An order under this subsection does not relieve the juvenile of his or her obligation to pay restitution as ordered, but the amount owed by the juvenile shall be offset by any amount paid by his or her parent. As used in this subsection:
(a) "Juvenile" means a person within the court's jurisdiction under section 2d or 4 of chapter XIIA of the probate code of 1939, 1939 PA 288, MCL 712A.2d and 712A.4.
(b) "Parent" does not include a foster parent.
(16) If the court orders a parent to pay restitution under subsection (15), the court shall take into account the parent's financial resources and the burden that the payment of restitution will impose, with due regard to any other moral or legal financial obligations the parent may have. If a parent is required to pay restitution under subsection (15), the court shall provide for payment to be made in specified installments and within a specified period of time.
(17) A parent who has been ordered to pay restitution under subsection (15) may petition the court for a modification of the amount of restitution owed by the parent or for a cancellation of any unpaid portion of the parent's obligation. The court shall cancel all or part of the parent's obligation due if the court determines that payment of the amount due will impose a manifest hardship on the parent and if the court also determines that modifying the method of payment will not impose a manifest hardship on the victim.
(18) In each case in which payment of restitution is ordered as a condition of probation, the court shall order any employed defendant to make regularly scheduled restitution payments. If the defendant misses 2 or more regularly scheduled payments, the court shall order the defendant to execute a wage assignment to pay the restitution. The probation officer assigned to the case shall review the case not less than twice yearly to ensure that restitution is being paid as ordered. If the restitution was ordered to be made within a specific period of time, the probation officer assigned to the case shall review the case at the end of the specific period of time to determine if the restitution has been paid in full. The final review shall be conducted not less than 60 days before the probationary period expires. If the probation officer determines at any review that restitution is not being paid as ordered, the probation officer shall file a written report of the violation with the court on a form prescribed by the state court administrative office or shall petition the court for a probation violation. The report or petition shall include a statement of the amount of the arrearage and any reasons for the arrearage known by the probation officer. The probation officer shall immediately provide a copy of the report or petition to the prosecuting attorney. If a petition or motion is filed or other proceedings are initiated to enforce payment of restitution and the court determines that restitution is not being paid or has not been paid as ordered by the court, the court shall promptly take action necessary to compel compliance.
(19) If a defendant who is ordered to pay restitution under this section is remanded to the jurisdiction of the department of corrections, the court shall provide a copy of the order of restitution to the department of corrections when the defendant is remanded to the department's jurisdiction.
(20) The court shall not impose a fee on a victim, victim's estate, or prosecuting attorney for enforcing an order of restitution.
(21) If a person or entity entitled to restitution under this section cannot be located, refuses to claim the restitution within 2 years after the date on which he or she could have claimed the restitution, or refuses to accept the restitution, the restitution to which that person or entity is entitled shall be deposited in the crime victim's rights fund created under section 4 of 1989 PA 196, MCL 780.904, or its successor fund. However, a person or entity entitled to that restitution may claim that restitution any time by applying to the court that originally ordered and collected it. The court shall notify the crime victim services commission of the application and the commission shall approve a reduction in the court's revenue transmittal to the crime victim's rights fund equal to the restitution owed to the person or entity. The court shall use the reduction to reimburse that restitution to the person or entity.
(22) The court may amend an order of restitution entered under this section on a motion by the prosecuting attorney, the victim, or the defendant based upon new information related to the injury, damages, or loss for which the restitution was ordered.
(23) A court that receives notice that a defendant who has an obligation to pay restitution under this section has declared bankruptcy shall forward a copy of that notice to the prosecuting attorney. The prosecuting attorney shall forward the notice to the victim at the victim's last known address.
(24) If the victim is a minor, the order of restitution shall require the defendant to pay to a parent of the victim an amount that is determined to be reasonable for any of the following that are actually incurred or reasonably expected to be incurred by the parent as a result of the crime:
(a) Homemaking and child care expenses.
(b) Income loss not ordered to be paid under subsection (4)(h).
(d) Lodging or housing.
(f) Any other cost incurred in exercising the rights of the victim or a parent under this act.
History: 1985, Act 87, Eff. Oct. 9, 1985
Am. 1986, Act 234, Imd. Eff. Oct. 6, 1986
Am. 1988, Act 21, Eff. June 1, 1988
Am. 1993, Act 341, Eff. May 1, 1994
Am. 1996, Act 121, Eff. May 1, 1996
Am. 1996, Act 562, Eff. June 1, 1997
Am. 1998, Act 232, Imd. Eff. July 3, 1998
Am. 2000, Act 503, Eff. June 1, 2001
Am. 2005, Act 184, Eff. Jan. 1, 2006
Am. 2009, Act 28, Eff. July 1, 2009
Am. 2013, Act 139, Imd. Eff. Oct. 22, 2013
Compiler's Notes: Enacting section 1 of Act 28 of 2009 provides:"Enacting section 1. This amendatory act takes effect July 1, 2009, and applies only to crimes committed on and after that date."For transfer of powers and duties of Michigan parole and commutation board to Michigan parole board within department of corrections, and abolishment of Michigan parole and commutation board, see E.R.O. No. 2011-3, compiled at MCL 791.305.
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