PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT RELATIONS (EXCERPT)
Act 336 of 1947
423.210 Prohibited conduct by public employer or officer or agent; prohibited conduct by labor organization; conduct not required as condition for obtaining or continuing public employment; exception; enforceability of agreement, contract, understanding, or practice; jurisdiction of court; appropriation; violation; audit of expenditures by bargaining representative; civil action.
(1) A public employer or an officer or agent of a public employer shall not do any of the following:
(a) Interfere with, restrain, or coerce public employees in the exercise of their rights guaranteed in section 9.
(b) Initiate, create, dominate, contribute to, or interfere with the formation or administration of any labor organization. A public school employer's use of public school resources to assist a labor organization in collecting dues or service fees from wages of public school employees is a prohibited contribution to the administration of a labor organization. However, a public school employer's collection of dues or service fees pursuant to a collective bargaining agreement that is in effect on March 16, 2012 is not prohibited until the agreement expires or is terminated, extended, or renewed. A public employer may permit employees to confer with a labor organization during working hours without loss of time or pay.
(c) Discriminate in regard to hire, terms, or other conditions of employment to encourage or discourage membership in a labor organization.
(d) Discriminate against a public employee because he or she has given testimony or instituted proceedings under this act.
(e) Refuse to bargain collectively with the representatives of its public employees, subject to the provisions of section 11.
(2) A labor organization or its agents shall not do any of the following:
(a) Restrain or coerce public employees in the exercise of the rights guaranteed in section 9. This subdivision does not impair the right of a labor organization to prescribe its own rules with respect to the acquisition or retention of membership.
(b) Restrain or coerce a public employer in the selection of its representatives for the purposes of collective bargaining or the adjustment of grievances.
(c) Cause or attempt to cause a public employer to discriminate against a public employee in violation of subsection (1)(c).
(d) Refuse to bargain collectively with a public employer, provided it is the representative of the public employer's employees subject to section 11.
(3) Except as provided in subsection (4), an individual shall not be required as a condition of obtaining or continuing public employment to do any of the following:
(a) Refrain or resign from membership in, voluntary affiliation with, or voluntary financial support of a labor organization or bargaining representative.
(b) Become or remain a member of a labor organization or bargaining representative.
(c) Pay any dues, fees, assessments, or other charges or expenses of any kind or amount, or provide anything of value to a labor organization or bargaining representative.
(d) Pay to any charitable organization or third party any amount that is in lieu of, equivalent to, or any portion of dues, fees, assessments, or other charges or expenses required of members of or public employees represented by a labor organization or bargaining representative.
(4) The application of subsection (3) is subject to the following:
(a) Subsection (3) does not apply to any of the following:
(i) A public police or fire department employee or any person who seeks to become employed as a public police or fire department employee as that term is defined under section 2 of 1969 PA 312, MCL 423.232.
(ii) A state police trooper or sergeant who is granted rights under section 5 of article XI of the state constitution of 1963 or any individual who seeks to become employed as a state police trooper or sergeant.
(b) Any person described in subdivision (a), or a labor organization or bargaining representative representing persons described in subdivision (a) and a public employer or this state may agree that all employees in the bargaining unit shall share fairly in the financial support of the labor organization or their exclusive bargaining representative by paying a fee to the labor organization or exclusive bargaining representative that may be equivalent to the amount of dues uniformly required of members of the labor organization or exclusive bargaining representative. Section 9(2) shall not be construed to interfere with the right of a public employer or this state and a labor organization or bargaining representative to enter into or lawfully administer such an agreement as it relates to the employees or persons described in subdivision (a).
(c) If any of the exclusions in subdivision (a)(i) or (ii) are found to be invalid by a court, the following apply:
(i) The individuals described in the exclusion found to be invalid shall no longer be excepted from the application of subsection (3).
(ii) Subdivision (b) does not apply to individuals described in the invalid exclusion.
(5) An agreement, contract, understanding, or practice between or involving a public employer, labor organization, or bargaining representative that violates subsection (3) is unlawful and unenforceable. This subsection applies only to an agreement, contract, understanding, or practice that takes effect or is extended or renewed after the effective date of the amendatory act that added this subsection.
(6) The court of appeals has exclusive original jurisdiction over any action challenging the validity of subsection (3), (4), or (5). The court of appeals shall hear the action in an expedited manner.
(7) For fiscal year 2012-2013, $1,000,000.00 is appropriated to the department of licensing and regulatory affairs to be expended to do all of the following regarding the amendatory act that added this subsection:
(a) Respond to public inquiries regarding the amendatory act.
(b) Provide the commission with sufficient staff and other resources to implement the amendatory act.
(c) Inform public employers, public employees, and labor organizations concerning their rights and responsibilities under the amendatory act.
(d) Any other purposes that the director of the department of licensing and regulatory affairs determines in his or her discretion are necessary to implement the amendatory act.
(8) A person, public employer, or labor organization that violates subsection (3) is liable for a civil fine of not more than $500.00. A civil fine recovered under this section shall be submitted to the state treasurer for deposit in the general fund of this state.
(9) By March 1 of each year, each exclusive bargaining representative that represents public employees in this state shall file with the commission an independent audit of all expenditures attributed to the costs of collective bargaining, contract administration, and grievance adjustment during the prior calendar year. The commission shall make the audits available to the public on the commission's website. For fiscal year 2011-2012, $100,000.00 is appropriated to the commission for the costs of implementing this subsection.
(10) Except for actions required to be brought under subsection (6), a person who suffers an injury as a result of a violation or threatened violation of subsection (3) may bring a civil action for damages, injunctive relief, or both. In addition, a court shall award court costs and reasonable attorney fees to a plaintiff who prevails in an action brought under this subsection. Remedies provided in this subsection are independent of and in addition to other penalties and remedies prescribed by this act.
History: Add. 1965, Act 379, Imd. Eff. July 23, 1965
Am. 1973, Act 25, Imd. Eff. June 14, 1973
Am. 2012, Act 53, Imd. Eff. Mar. 16, 2012
Am. 2012, Act 349, Eff. Mar. 28, 2013
Constitutionality: In Lehnert v Ferris Faculty Association, 500 US 507; 111 S Ct 1950; 114 L Ed 2d 572 (1991), the United States Supreme Court held that a collective-bargaining unit constitutionally may compel its employees to subsidize only certain union activities. “[I]n determining which activities a union constitutionally may charge to dissenting employees ... chargeable activities must (1) be 'germane' to collective-bargaining activity; (2) be justified by the government's vital policy interest in labor peace and avoiding 'free riders'; and (3) not significantly add to the burdening of free speech that is inherent in the allowance of an agency or union shop.”Ruling on the respondent union's disputed activities, the Court held:(1) The respondent may not charge the funds of objecting employees for a program designed to secure funds for Michigan public education or for that portion of a union publication that reports on those activities. The Court found none of the activities “to be oriented toward the ratification or implementation of petitioner's collective-bargaining agreement.”(2) The respondent may bill dissenting employees for their share of general collective-bargaining costs of the state or national parent union. The district court had found these costs to be germane to collective bargaining and similar support services; the court agreed with the finding.(3) The respondent may not charge for the expenses of litigation that does not concern the dissenting employees' bargaining unit or, by extension, union literature reporting on such activities. The Court found extra-unit litigation to be proscribed by the First Amendment of the United States Constitution because it is “more akin to lobbying in both kind and effect” and not germane to a union's activities as an exclusive bargaining agent.(4) The respondent may not bill for certain public relations activities. The Court states: “[T]he ... activities ... entailed speech of a political nature in a public forum. More important, public speech in support of the teaching profession generally is not sufficiently related to the union's collective-bargaining functions to justify compelling dissenting employees to support it. Expression of this kind extends beyond the negotiation and grievance-resolution contexts and imposes a substantially greater burden upon First Amendment rights ... .”(5) The respondent may charge for those portions of a union publication that concern teaching and education generally, professional development, unemployment, job opportunities, union award programs, and miscellaneous matters. The Court noted that such informational support services are neither political nor public in nature and that expenditures for them benefit all, without additional infringements upon the First Amendment.(6) The respondent may bill for fees to send delegates to state and national affiliated conventions. The Court found that participation by local members in the formal activities of the parent is an important benefit of affiliation and an essential part of a union's discharge of its duties as a bargaining agent.(7) The respondent may charge expenses incidental to preparation for a strike which, had it occurred, would have been illegal under Michigan law. The Court, noting that the Michigan Legislature had imposed no restriction, stated there was no First Amendment limitation on such charges. The Court added that such expenses are “substantively indistinguishable from those appurtenant to collective-bargaining negotiations ... enure to the direct benefit of members of the dissenters' unit ... and impose no additional burden upon First Amendment rights.”
Compiler's Notes: Enacting section 1 of Act 349 of 2012 provides:"Enacting section 1. If any part or parts of this act are found to be in conflict with the state constitution of 1963, the United States constitution, or federal law, this act shall be implemented to the maximum extent that the state constitution of 1963, the United States constitution, and federal law permit. Any provision held invalid or inoperative shall be severable from the remaining portions of this act."
Popular Name: Public Employment Relations
© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan