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THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956
500.3101 Security for payment of benefits required; period security required to be in effect; definitions; policy of insurance or other method of providing security; filing proof of security; exclusion.
(1) Except as provided in sections 3107d and 3109a, the owner or registrant of a motor vehicle required to be registered in this state shall maintain security for payment of benefits under personal protection insurance and property protection insurance as required under this chapter, and residual liability insurance. Security is only required to be in effect during the period the motor vehicle is driven or moved on a highway.
(2) Except as provided in section 3107d, all automobile insurance policies offered in this state must include benefits under personal protection insurance, and property protection insurance as provided in this chapter, and residual liability insurance. Notwithstanding any other provision in this act, an insurer that has issued an automobile insurance policy may only delete portions of the coverages under the policy and maintain the comprehensive coverage portion on a motor vehicle that is not driven or moved on a highway in accordance with section 3009(4).
(3) As used in this chapter:
(a) "Automobile insurance" means that term as defined in section 2102.
(b) "Commercial quadricycle" means a vehicle to which all of the following apply:
(i) The vehicle has fully operative pedals for propulsion entirely by human power.
(ii) The vehicle has at least 4 wheels and is operated in a manner similar to a bicycle.
(iii) The vehicle has at least 6 seats for passengers.
(iv) The vehicle is designed to be occupied by a driver and powered either by passengers providing pedal power to the drive train of the vehicle or by a motor capable of propelling the vehicle in the absence of human power.
(v) The vehicle is used for commercial purposes.
(vi) The vehicle is operated by the owner of the vehicle or an employee of the owner of the vehicle.
(c) "Electric bicycle" means that term as defined in section 13e of the Michigan vehicle code, 1949 PA 300, MCL 257.13e.
(d) "Golf cart" means a vehicle designed for transportation while playing the game of golf.
(e) "Highway" means highway or street as that term is defined in section 20 of the Michigan vehicle code, 1949 PA 300, MCL 257.20.
(f) "Moped" means that term as defined in section 32b of the Michigan vehicle code, 1949 PA 300, MCL 257.32b.
(g) "Motorcycle" means a vehicle that has a saddle or seat for the use of the rider, is designed to travel on not more than 3 wheels in contact with the ground, and is equipped with a motor that exceeds 50 cubic centimeters piston displacement. For purposes of this subdivision, the wheels on any attachment to the vehicle are not considered as wheels in contact with the ground. Motorcycle does not include a moped or an ORV.
(h) "Motorcycle accident" means a loss that involves the ownership, operation, maintenance, or use of a motorcycle as a motorcycle, but does not involve the ownership, operation, maintenance, or use of a motor vehicle as a motor vehicle.
(i) "Motor vehicle" means a vehicle, including a trailer, that is operated or designed for operation on a public highway by power other than muscular power and has more than 2 wheels. Motor vehicle does not include any of the following:
(i) A motorcycle.
(ii) A moped.
(iii) A farm tractor or other implement of husbandry that is not subject to the registration requirements of the Michigan vehicle code under section 216 of the Michigan vehicle code, 1949 PA 300, MCL 257.216.
(iv) An ORV.
(v) A golf cart.
(vi) A power-driven mobility device.
(vii) A commercial quadricycle.
(viii) An electric bicycle.
(j) "Motor vehicle accident" means a loss that involves the ownership, operation, maintenance, or use of a motor vehicle as a motor vehicle regardless of whether the accident also involves the ownership, operation, maintenance, or use of a motorcycle as a motorcycle.
(k) "ORV" means a motor-driven recreation vehicle designed for off-road use and capable of cross-country travel without benefit of road or trail, on or immediately over land, snow, ice, marsh, swampland, or other natural terrain. ORV includes, but is not limited to, a multitrack or multiwheel drive vehicle, a motorcycle or related 2-wheel, 3-wheel, or 4-wheel vehicle, an amphibious machine, a ground effect air cushion vehicle, an ATV as defined in section 81101 of the natural resources and environmental protection act, 1994 PA 451, MCL 324.81101, or other means of transportation deriving motive power from a source other than muscle or wind. ORV does not include a vehicle described in this subdivision that is registered for use on a public highway and has the security required under subsection (1) or section 3103 in effect.
(l) "Owner" means any of the following:
(i) A person renting a motor vehicle or having the use of a motor vehicle, under a lease or otherwise, for a period that is greater than 30 days.
(ii) A person renting a motorcycle or having the use of a motorcycle under a lease for a period that is greater than 30 days, or otherwise for a period that is greater than 30 consecutive days. A person who borrows a motorcycle for a period that is less than 30 consecutive days with the consent of the owner is not an owner under this subparagraph.
(iii) A person that holds the legal title to a motor vehicle or motorcycle, other than a person engaged in the business of leasing motor vehicles or motorcycles that is the lessor of a motor vehicle or motorcycle under a lease that provides for the use of the motor vehicle or motorcycle by the lessee for a period that is greater than 30 days.
(iv) A person that has the immediate right of possession of a motor vehicle or motorcycle under an installment sale contract.
(m) "Power-driven mobility device" means a wheelchair or other mobility device powered by a battery, fuel, or other engine and designed to be used by an individual with a mobility disability for the purpose of locomotion.
(n) "Registrant" does not include a person engaged in the business of leasing motor vehicles or motorcycles that is the lessor of a motor vehicle or motorcycle under a lease that provides for the use of the motor vehicle or motorcycle by the lessee for a period that is longer than 30 days.
(4) Security required by subsection (1) may be provided under a policy issued by an authorized insurer that affords insurance for the payment of benefits described in subsection (1). A policy of insurance represented or sold as providing security is considered to provide insurance for the payment of the benefits.
(5) Security required by subsection (1) may be provided by any other method approved by the secretary of state as affording security equivalent to that afforded by a policy of insurance, if proof of the security is filed and continuously maintained with the secretary of state throughout the period the motor vehicle is driven or moved on a highway. The person filing the security has all the obligations and rights of an insurer under this chapter. When the context permits, "insurer" as used in this chapter, includes a person that files the security as provided in this section.
(6) An insurer that issues a policy that provides the security required under subsection (1) may exclude coverage under the policy as provided in section 3017.
History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973
Am. 1975, Act 329, Eff. Mar. 31, 1976
Am. 1977, Act 54, Imd. Eff. July 6, 1977
Am. 1980, Act 445, Imd. Eff. Jan. 15, 1981
Am. 1984, Act 84, Imd. Eff. Apr. 19, 1984
Am. 1987, Act 168, Imd. Eff. Nov. 9, 1987
Am. 1988, Act 126, Imd. Eff. May 23, 1988
Am. 2008, Act 241, Imd. Eff. July 17, 2008
Am. 2014, Act 492, Imd. Eff. Jan. 13, 2015
Am. 2016, Act 346, Eff. Mar. 21, 2017
Am. 2017, Act 140, Imd. Eff. Oct. 30, 2017
Am. 2019, Act 21, Imd. Eff. June 11, 2019
Constitutionality: Subsection (1) of this section is unconstitutional but subsection (2) does not violate the due process and equal protection clauses. Shavers v Attorney General, 402 Mich 554; 267 NW2d 72 (1978).
Compiler's Notes: Act 143 of 1993, which amended this section, was submitted to the people by referendum petition (as Proposal C) and rejected by a majority of the votes cast at the November 8, 1994, general election.Enacting section 1 of Act 492 of 2014 provides:"Enacting section 1. Section 3101(2)(h)(vi) of the insurance code of 1956, 1956 PA 218, MCL 500.3101, as added by this amendatory act, shall be applied retroactively."
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance