GOVERNMENTAL LIABILITY FOR NEGLIGENCE (EXCERPT)
Act 170 of 1964
691.1407 Immunity from tort liability; intentional torts; immunity of judge, legislator, official, and guardian ad litem; immunity of governmental agency under MISS DIG underground facility damage prevention and safety act; definitions.
(1) Except as otherwise provided in this act, a governmental agency is immune from tort liability if the governmental agency is engaged in the exercise or discharge of a governmental function. Except as otherwise provided in this act, this act does not modify or restrict the immunity of the state from tort liability as it existed before July 1, 1965, which immunity is affirmed.
(2) Except as otherwise provided in this section, and without regard to the discretionary or ministerial nature of the conduct in question, each officer and employee of a governmental agency, each volunteer acting on behalf of a governmental agency, and each member of a board, council, commission, or statutorily created task force of a governmental agency is immune from tort liability for an injury to a person or damage to property caused by the officer, employee, or member while in the course of employment or service or caused by the volunteer while acting on behalf of a governmental agency if all of the following are met:
(a) The officer, employee, member, or volunteer is acting or reasonably believes he or she is acting within the scope of his or her authority.
(b) The governmental agency is engaged in the exercise or discharge of a governmental function.
(c) The officer's, employee's, member's, or volunteer's conduct does not amount to gross negligence that is the proximate cause of the injury or damage.
(3) Subsection (2) does not alter the law of intentional torts as it existed before July 7, 1986.
(4) This act does not grant immunity to a governmental agency or an employee or agent of a governmental agency with respect to providing medical care or treatment to a patient, except medical care or treatment provided to a patient in a hospital owned or operated by the department of community health or a hospital owned or operated by the department of corrections and except care or treatment provided by an uncompensated search and rescue operation medical assistant or tactical operation medical assistant.
(5) A judge, a legislator, and the elective or highest appointive executive official of all levels of government are immune from tort liability for injuries to persons or damages to property if he or she is acting within the scope of his or her judicial, legislative, or executive authority.
(6) A guardian ad litem is immune from civil liability for an injury to a person or damage to property if he or she is acting within the scope of his or her authority as guardian ad litem. This subsection applies to actions filed before, on, or after May 1, 1996.
(7) The immunity provided by this act does not apply to liability of a governmental agency under the MISS DIG underground facility damage prevention and safety act.
(8) As used in this section:
(a) "Gross negligence" means conduct so reckless as to demonstrate a substantial lack of concern for whether an injury results.
(b) "Search and rescue operation" means an action by a governmental agency to search for, rescue, or recover victims of a natural or manmade disaster, accident, or emergency on land or water.
(c) "Search and rescue operation medical assistant" means an individual licensed to practice 1 or more of the occupations listed in subdivision (e), acting within the scope of the license, and assisting a governmental agency in a search and rescue operation.
(d) "Tactical operation" means a coordinated, planned action by a special operations, weapons, or response team of a law enforcement agency that is 1 of the following:
(i) Taken to deal with imminent violence, a riot, an act of terrorism, or a similar civic emergency.
(ii) The entry into a building, area, watercraft, aircraft, land vehicle, or body of water to seize evidence, or to arrest an individual for a felony, under the authority of a warrant issued by a court.
(iii) Training for the team.
(e) "Tactical operation medical assistant" means an individual licensed to practice 1 or more of the following, acting within the scope of the license, and assisting law enforcement officers while they are engaged in a tactical operation:
(i) Medicine, osteopathic medicine and surgery, or as a registered professional nurse, under article 15 of the public health code, 1978 PA 368, MCL 333.16101 to 333.18838.
(ii) As an emergency medical technician, emergency medical technician specialist, or paramedic under part 209 of the public health code, 1978 PA 368, MCL 333.20901 to 333.20979.
History: 1964, Act 170, Eff. July 1, 1965
Am. 1970, Act 155, Imd. Eff. Aug. 1, 1970
Am. 1986, Act 175, Imd. Eff. July 7, 1986
Am. 1996, Act 143, Eff. May 1, 1996
Am. 1999, Act 241, Imd. Eff. Dec. 28, 1999
Am. 2000, Act 318, Imd. Eff. Oct. 24, 2000
Am. 2004, Act 428, Imd. Eff. Dec. 17, 2004
Am. 2005, Act 318, Imd. Eff. Dec. 27, 2005
Am. 2013, Act 173, Eff. Apr. 1, 2014
Compiler's Notes: Section 3 of Act 175 of 1986 provides:“(1) Sections 1, 7, and 13 of Act No. 170 of the Public Acts of 1964, as amended by this amendatory act, being sections 691.1401, 691.1407, and 691.1413 of the Michigan Compiled Laws, shall not apply to causes of action which arise before July 1, 1986.“(2) Section 6a of Act No. 170 of the Public Acts of 1964, as added by this amendatory act, shall apply to cases filed on or after July 1, 1986.”Enacting section 1 of Act 318 of 2000 provides:“Enacting section 1. This amendatory act applies only to a cause of action arising on or after the effective date of this amendatory act.”
Popular Name: Governmental Immunity Act