THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956
500.3104 Catastrophic claims association.
(1) An unincorporated, nonprofit association to be known as the catastrophic claims association, hereinafter referred to as the association, is created. Each insurer engaged in writing insurance coverages that provide the security required by section 3101(1) within this state, as a condition of its authority to transact insurance in this state, shall be a member of the association and shall be bound by the plan of operation of the association. Each insurer engaged in writing insurance coverages that provide the security required by section 3103(1) within this state, as a condition of its authority to transact insurance in this state, shall be considered a member of the association, but only for purposes of premiums under subsection (7)(d). Except as expressly provided in this section, the association is not subject to any laws of this state with respect to insurers, but in all other respects the association is subject to the laws of this state to the extent that the association would be if it were an insurer organized and subsisting under chapter 50.
(2) The association shall provide and each member shall accept indemnification for 100% of the amount of ultimate loss sustained under personal protection insurance coverages in excess of the following amounts in each loss occurrence:
(a) For a motor vehicle accident policy issued or renewed before July 1, 2002, $250,000.00.
(b) For a motor vehicle accident policy issued or renewed during the period July 1, 2002 to June 30, 2003, $300,000.00.
(c) For a motor vehicle accident policy issued or renewed during the period July 1, 2003 to June 30, 2004, $325,000.00.
(d) For a motor vehicle accident policy issued or renewed during the period July 1, 2004 to June 30, 2005, $350,000.00.
(e) For a motor vehicle accident policy issued or renewed during the period July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2006, $375,000.00.
(f) For a motor vehicle accident policy issued or renewed during the period July 1, 2006 to June 30, 2007, $400,000.00.
(g) For a motor vehicle accident policy issued or renewed during the period July 1, 2007 to June 30, 2008, $420,000.00.
(h) For a motor vehicle accident policy issued or renewed during the period July 1, 2008 to June 30, 2009, $440,000.00.
(i) For a motor vehicle accident policy issued or renewed during the period July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2010, $460,000.00.
(j) For a motor vehicle accident policy issued or renewed during the period July 1, 2010 to June 30, 2011, $480,000.00.
(k) For a motor vehicle accident policy issued or renewed during the period July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2013, $500,000.00. Beginning July 1, 2013, this $500,000.00 amount shall be increased biennially on July 1 of each odd-numbered year, for policies issued or renewed before July 1 of the following odd-numbered year, by the lesser of 6% or the consumer price index, and rounded to the nearest $5,000.00. This biennial adjustment shall be calculated by the association by January 1 of the year of its July 1 effective date.
(3) An insurer may withdraw from the association only upon ceasing to write insurance that provides the security required by section 3101(1) in this state.
(4) An insurer whose membership in the association has been terminated by withdrawal shall continue to be bound by the plan of operation, and upon withdrawal, all unpaid premiums that have been charged to the withdrawing member are payable as of the effective date of the withdrawal.
(5) An unsatisfied net liability to the association of an insolvent member shall be assumed by and apportioned among the remaining members of the association as provided in the plan of operation. The association has all rights allowed by law on behalf of the remaining members against the estate or funds of the insolvent member for sums due the association.
(6) If a member has been merged or consolidated into another insurer or another insurer has reinsured a member's entire business that provides the security required by section 3101(1) in this state, the member and successors in interest of the member remain liable for the member's obligations.
(7) The association shall do all of the following on behalf of the members of the association:
(a) Assume 100% of all liability as provided in subsection (2).
(b) Establish procedures by which members shall promptly report to the association each claim that, on the basis of the injuries or damages sustained, may reasonably be anticipated to involve the association if the member is ultimately held legally liable for the injuries or damages. Solely for the purpose of reporting claims, the member shall in all instances consider itself legally liable for the injuries or damages. The member shall also advise the association of subsequent developments likely to materially affect the interest of the association in the claim.
(c) Maintain relevant loss and expense data relative to all liabilities of the association and require each member to furnish statistics, in connection with liabilities of the association, at the times and in the form and detail as may be required by the plan of operation.
(d) In a manner provided for in the plan of operation, calculate and charge to members of the association a total premium sufficient to cover the expected losses and expenses of the association that the association will likely incur during the period for which the premium is applicable. The premium shall include an amount to cover incurred but not reported losses for the period and may be adjusted for any excess or deficient premiums from previous periods. Excesses or deficiencies from previous periods may be fully adjusted in a single period or may be adjusted over several periods in a manner provided for in the plan of operation. Each member shall be charged an amount equal to that member's total written car years of insurance providing the security required by section 3101(1) or 3103(1), or both, written in this state during the period to which the premium applies, multiplied by the average premium per car. The average premium per car shall be the total premium calculated divided by the total written car years of insurance providing the security required by section 3101(1) or 3103(1) written in this state of all members during the period to which the premium applies. A member shall be charged a premium for a historic vehicle that is insured with the member of 20% of the premium charged for a car insured with the member. As used in this subdivision:
(i) “Car” includes a motorcycle but does not include a historic vehicle.
(ii) “Historic vehicle” means a vehicle that is a registered historic vehicle under section 803a or 803p of the Michigan vehicle code, 1949 PA 300, MCL 257.803a and 257.803p.
(e) Require and accept the payment of premiums from members of the association as provided for in the plan of operation. The association shall do either of the following:
(i) Require payment of the premium in full within 45 days after the premium charge.
(ii) Require payment of the premiums to be made periodically to cover the actual cash obligations of the association.
(f) Receive and distribute all sums required by the operation of the association.
(g) Establish procedures for reviewing claims procedures and practices of members of the association. If the claims procedures or practices of a member are considered inadequate to properly service the liabilities of the association, the association may undertake or may contract with another person, including another member, to adjust or assist in the adjustment of claims for the member on claims that create a potential liability to the association and may charge the cost of the adjustment to the member.
(8) In addition to other powers granted to it by this section, the association may do all of the following:
(a) Sue and be sued in the name of the association. A judgment against the association shall not create any direct liability against the individual members of the association. The association may provide for the indemnification of its members, members of the board of directors of the association, and officers, employees, and other persons lawfully acting on behalf of the association.
(b) Reinsure all or any portion of its potential liability with reinsurers licensed to transact insurance in this state or approved by the commissioner.
(c) Provide for appropriate housing, equipment, and personnel as may be necessary to assure the efficient operation of the association.
(d) Pursuant to the plan of operation, adopt reasonable rules for the administration of the association, enforce those rules, and delegate authority, as the board considers necessary to assure the proper administration and operation of the association consistent with the plan of operation.
(e) Contract for goods and services, including independent claims management, actuarial, investment, and legal services, from others within or without this state to assure the efficient operation of the association.
(f) Hear and determine complaints of a company or other interested party concerning the operation of the association.
(g) Perform other acts not specifically enumerated in this section that are necessary or proper to accomplish the purposes of the association and that are not inconsistent with this section or the plan of operation.
(9) A board of directors is created, hereinafter referred to as the board, which shall be responsible for the operation of the association consistent with the plan of operation and this section.
(10) The plan of operation shall provide for all of the following:
(a) The establishment of necessary facilities.
(b) The management and operation of the association.
(c) Procedures to be utilized in charging premiums, including adjustments from excess or deficient premiums from prior periods.
(d) Procedures governing the actual payment of premiums to the association.
(e) Reimbursement of each member of the board by the association for actual and necessary expenses incurred on association business.
(f) The investment policy of the association.
(g) Any other matters required by or necessary to effectively implement this section.
(11) Each board shall include members that would contribute a total of not less than 40% of the total premium calculated pursuant to subsection (7)(d). Each director shall be entitled to 1 vote. The initial term of office of a director shall be 2 years.
(12) As part of the plan of operation, the board shall adopt rules providing for the composition and term of successor boards to the initial board, consistent with the membership composition requirements in subsections (11) and (13). Terms of the directors shall be staggered so that the terms of all the directors do not expire at the same time and so that a director does not serve a term of more than 4 years.
(13) The board shall consist of 5 directors, and the commissioner shall be an ex officio member of the board without vote.
(14) Each director shall be appointed by the commissioner and shall serve until that member's successor is selected and qualified. The chairperson of the board shall be elected by the board. A vacancy on the board shall be filled by the commissioner consistent with the plan of operation.
(15) After the board is appointed, the board shall meet as often as the chairperson, the commissioner, or the plan of operation shall require, or at the request of any 3 members of the board. The chairperson shall retain the right to vote on all issues. Four members of the board constitute a quorum.
(16) An annual report of the operations of the association in a form and detail as may be determined by the board shall be furnished to each member.
(17) Not more than 60 days after the initial organizational meeting of the board, the board shall submit to the commissioner for approval a proposed plan of operation consistent with the objectives and provisions of this section, which shall provide for the economical, fair, and nondiscriminatory administration of the association and for the prompt and efficient provision of indemnity. If a plan is not submitted within this 60-day period, then the commissioner, after consultation with the board, shall formulate and place into effect a plan consistent with this section.
(18) The plan of operation, unless approved sooner in writing, shall be considered to meet the requirements of this section if it is not disapproved by written order of the commissioner within 30 days after the date of its submission. Before disapproval of all or any part of the proposed plan of operation, the commissioner shall notify the board in what respect the plan of operation fails to meet the requirements and objectives of this section. If the board fails to submit a revised plan of operation that meets the requirements and objectives of this section within the 30-day period, the commissioner shall enter an order accordingly and shall immediately formulate and place into effect a plan consistent with the requirements and objectives of this section.
(19) The proposed plan of operation or amendments to the plan of operation are subject to majority approval by the board, ratified by a majority of the membership having a vote, with voting rights being apportioned according to the premiums charged in subsection (7)(d) and are subject to approval by the commissioner.
(20) Upon approval by the commissioner and ratification by the members of the plan submitted, or upon the promulgation of a plan by the commissioner, each insurer authorized to write insurance providing the security required by section 3101(1) in this state, as provided in this section, is bound by and shall formally subscribe to and participate in the plan approved as a condition of maintaining its authority to transact insurance in this state.
(21) The association is subject to all the reporting, loss reserve, and investment requirements of the commissioner to the same extent as would a member of the association.
(22) Premiums charged members by the association shall be recognized in the rate-making procedures for insurance rates in the same manner that expenses and premium taxes are recognized.
(23) The commissioner or an authorized representative of the commissioner may visit the association at any time and examine any and all the association's affairs.
(24) The association does not have liability for losses occurring before July 1, 1978.
(25) As used in this section:
(a) “Consumer price index” means the percentage of change in the consumer price index for all urban consumers in the United States city average for all items for the 24 months prior to October 1 of the year prior to the July 1 effective date of the biennial adjustment under subsection (2)(k) as reported by the United States department of labor, bureau of labor statistics, and as certified by the commissioner.
(b) “Motor vehicle accident policy” means a policy providing the coverages required under section 3101(1).
(c) “Ultimate loss” means the actual loss amounts that a member is obligated to pay and that are paid or payable by the member, and do not include claim expenses. An ultimate loss is incurred by the association on the date that the loss occurs.
History: Add. 1978, Act 136, Eff. July 1, 1978
Am. 1980, Act 445, Imd. Eff. Jan. 15, 1981
Am. 2001, Act 3, Eff. July 1, 2002
Am. 2002, Act 662, Eff. July 1, 2003
Compiler's Notes: Act 143 of 1993, which amended this section, was submitted to the people by referendum petition (as Proposal C) and rejected by a majority of the votes cast at the November 8, 1994, general election.
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance
© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan