PROBATE CODE OF 1939 (EXCERPT)
Act 288 of 1939
***** 712A.2 THIS SECTION IS AMENDED EFFECTIVE JUNE 12, 2018: See 712A.2.amended *****
712A.2 Authority and jurisdiction of court.
The court has the following authority and jurisdiction:
(a) Exclusive original jurisdiction superior to and regardless of the jurisdiction of another court in proceedings concerning a juvenile under 17 years of age who is found within the county if 1 or more of the following applies:
(1) Except as otherwise provided in this sub-subdivision, the juvenile has violated any municipal ordinance or law of the state or of the United States. If the court enters into an agreement under section 2e of this chapter, the court has jurisdiction over a juvenile who committed a civil infraction as provided in that section. The court has jurisdiction over a juvenile 14 years of age or older who is charged with a specified juvenile violation only if the prosecuting attorney files a petition in the court instead of authorizing a complaint and warrant. As used in this sub-subdivision, "specified juvenile violation" means 1 or more of the following:
(A) A violation of section 72, 83, 86, 89, 91, 316, 317, 349, 520b, 529, 529a, or 531 of the Michigan penal code, 1931 PA 328, MCL 750.72, 750.83, 750.86, 750.89, 750.91, 750.316, 750.317, 750.349, 750.520b, 750.529, 750.529a, and 750.531.
(B) A violation of section 84 or 110a(2) of the Michigan penal code, 1931 PA 328, MCL 750.84 and 750.110a, if the juvenile is armed with a dangerous weapon. As used in this paragraph, "dangerous weapon" means 1 or more of the following:
(i) A loaded or unloaded firearm, whether operable or inoperable.
(ii) A knife, stabbing instrument, brass knuckles, blackjack, club, or other object specifically designed or customarily carried or possessed for use as a weapon.
(iii) An object that is likely to cause death or bodily injury when used as a weapon and that is used as a weapon or carried or possessed for use as a weapon.
(iv) An object or device that is used or fashioned in a manner to lead a person to believe the object or device is an object or device described in subparagraphs (i) to (iii).
(C) A violation of section 186a of the Michigan penal code, 1931 PA 328, MCL 750.186a, regarding escape or attempted escape from a juvenile facility, but only if the juvenile facility from which the individual escaped or attempted to escape was 1 of the following:
(i) A high-security or medium-security facility operated by the department of human services or a county juvenile agency.
(ii) A high-security facility operated by a private agency under contract with the department of human services or a county juvenile agency.
(D) A violation of section 7401(2)(a)(i) or 7403(2)(a)(i) of the public health code, 1978 PA 368, MCL 333.7401 and 333.7403.
(E) An attempt to commit a violation described in paragraphs (A) to (D).
(F) Conspiracy to commit a violation described in paragraphs (A) to (D).
(G) Solicitation to commit a violation described in paragraphs (A) to (D).
(H) A lesser included offense of a violation described in paragraphs (A) to (G) if the individual is charged with a violation described in paragraphs (A) to (G).
(I) Another violation arising out of the same transaction as a violation described in paragraphs (A) to (G) if the individual is charged with a violation described in paragraphs (A) to (G).
(2) The juvenile has deserted his or her home without sufficient cause, and the court finds on the record that the juvenile has been placed or refused alternative placement or the juvenile and the juvenile's parent, guardian, or custodian have exhausted or refused family counseling.
(3) The juvenile is repeatedly disobedient to the reasonable and lawful commands of his or her parents, guardian, or custodian, and the court finds on the record by clear and convincing evidence that court-accessed services are necessary.
(4) The juvenile willfully and repeatedly absents himself or herself from school or other learning program intended to meet the juvenile's educational needs, or repeatedly violates rules and regulations of the school or other learning program, and the court finds on the record that the juvenile, the juvenile's parent, guardian, or custodian, and school officials or learning program personnel have met on the juvenile's educational problems and educational counseling and alternative agency help have been sought. As used in this sub-subdivision only, "learning program" means an organized educational program that is appropriate, given the age, intelligence, ability, and psychological limitations of a juvenile, in the subject areas of reading, spelling, mathematics, science, history, civics, writing, and English grammar.
(b) Jurisdiction in proceedings concerning a juvenile under 18 years of age found within the county:
(1) Whose parent or other person legally responsible for the care and maintenance of the juvenile, when able to do so, neglects or refuses to provide proper or necessary support, education, medical, surgical, or other care necessary for his or her health or morals, who is subject to a substantial risk of harm to his or her mental well-being, who is abandoned by his or her parents, guardian, or other custodian, or who is without proper custody or guardianship. As used in this sub-subdivision:
(A) "Education" means learning based on an organized educational program that is appropriate, given the age, intelligence, ability, and psychological limitations of a juvenile, in the subject areas of reading, spelling, mathematics, science, history, civics, writing, and English grammar.
(B) "Without proper custody or guardianship" does not mean a parent has placed the juvenile with another person who is legally responsible for the care and maintenance of the juvenile and who is able to and does provide the juvenile with proper care and maintenance.
(2) Whose home or environment, by reason of neglect, cruelty, drunkenness, criminality, or depravity on the part of a parent, guardian, nonparent adult, or other custodian, is an unfit place for the juvenile to live in.
(3) If the juvenile is dependent and is in danger of substantial physical or psychological harm. The juvenile may be found to be dependent when any of the following occurs:
(A) The juvenile is homeless or not domiciled with a parent or other legally responsible person.
(B) The juvenile has repeatedly run away from home and is beyond the control of a parent or other legally responsible person.
(C) The juvenile is alleged to have committed a commercial sexual activity as that term is defined in section 462a of the Michigan penal code, 1931 PA 328, MCL 750.462a or a delinquent act that is the result of force, fraud, coercion, or manipulation exercised by a parent or other adult.
(D) The juvenile's custodial parent or legally responsible person has died or has become permanently incapacitated and no appropriate parent or legally responsible person is willing and able to provide care for the juvenile.
(4) Whose parent has substantially failed, without good cause, to comply with a limited guardianship placement plan described in section 5205 of the estates and protected individuals code, 1998 PA 386, MCL 700.5205, regarding the juvenile.
(5) Whose parent has substantially failed, without good cause, to comply with a court-structured plan described in section 5207 or 5209 of the estates and protected individuals code, 1998 PA 386, MCL 700.5207 and 700.5209, regarding the juvenile.
(6) If the juvenile has a guardian under the estates and protected individuals code, 1998 PA 386, MCL 700.1101 to 700.8206, and the juvenile's parent meets both of the following criteria:
(A) The parent, having the ability to support or assist in supporting the juvenile, has failed or neglected, without good cause, to provide regular and substantial support for the juvenile for 2 years or more before the filing of the petition or, if a support order has been entered, has failed to substantially comply with the order for 2 years or more before the filing of the petition.
(B) The parent, having the ability to visit, contact, or communicate with the juvenile, has regularly and substantially failed or neglected, without good cause, to do so for 2 years or more before the filing of the petition.
If a petition is filed in the court alleging that a juvenile is within the provisions of subdivision (b)(1), (2), (3), (4), (5), or (6) and the custody of that juvenile is subject to the prior or continuing order of another court of record of this state, the manner of notice to the other court of record and the authority of the court to proceed is governed by rule of the supreme court.
(c) Jurisdiction over juveniles under 18 years of age, jurisdiction of whom has been waived to the family division of circuit court by a circuit court under a provision in a temporary order for custody of juveniles based upon a complaint for divorce or upon a motion related to a complaint for divorce by the prosecuting attorney, in a divorce judgment dissolving a marriage between the juvenile's parents, or by an amended judgment relative to the juvenile's custody in a divorce.
(d) If the court finds on the record that voluntary services have been exhausted or refused, concurrent jurisdiction in proceedings concerning a juvenile between the ages of 17 and 18 found within the county who is 1 or more of the following:
(1) Repeatedly addicted to the use of drugs or the intemperate use of alcoholic liquors.
(2) Repeatedly associating with criminal, dissolute, or disorderly persons.
(3) Found of his or her own free will and knowledge in a house of prostitution, assignation, or ill-fame.
(4) Repeatedly associating with thieves, prostitutes, pimps, or procurers.
(5) Willfully disobedient to the reasonable and lawful commands of his or her parents, guardian, or other custodian and in danger of becoming morally depraved.
If a juvenile is brought before the court in a county other than that in which the juvenile resides, before a hearing and with the consent of the judge of the court in the county of residence, the court may enter an order transferring jurisdiction of the matter to the court of the county of residence. Consent to transfer jurisdiction is not required if the county of residence is a county juvenile agency and satisfactory proof of residence is furnished to the court of the county of residence. The order does not constitute a legal settlement in this state that is required for the purpose of section 55 of the social welfare act, 1939 PA 280, MCL 400.55. The order and a certified copy of the proceedings in the transferring court shall be delivered to the court of the county of residence. A case designated as a case in which the juvenile shall be tried in the same manner as an adult under section 2d of this chapter may be transferred for venue or for juvenile disposition, but shall not be transferred on grounds of residency. If the case is not transferred, the court having jurisdiction of the offense shall try the case.
(e) Authority to establish or assist in developing a program or programs within the county to prevent delinquency and provide services to act upon reports submitted to the court related to the behavior of a juvenile who does not require formal court jurisdiction but otherwise falls within subdivision (a). These services shall be used only if the juvenile and his or her parents, guardian, or custodian voluntarily accepts them.
(f) If the court operates a detention home for juveniles within the court's jurisdiction under subdivision (a)(1), authority to place a juvenile within that home pending trial if the juvenile is within the circuit court's jurisdiction under section 606 of the revised judicature act of 1961, 1961 PA 236, MCL 600.606, and if the circuit court orders the family division of circuit court in the same county to place the juvenile in that home. The family division of circuit court shall comply with that order.
(g) Authority to place a juvenile in a county jail under section 27a of chapter IV of the code of criminal procedure, 1927 PA 175, MCL 764.27a, if the court designates the case under section 2d of this chapter as a case in which the juvenile is to be tried in the same manner as an adult and the court determines there is probable cause to believe that the offense was committed and probable cause to believe the juvenile committed that offense.
(h) Jurisdiction over a proceeding under section 2950 or 2950a of the revised judicature act of 1961, 1961 PA 236, MCL 600.2950 and 600.2950a, in which a minor less than 18 years of age is the respondent, or a proceeding to enforce a valid foreign protection order issued against a respondent who is a minor less than 18 years of age. A personal protection order shall not be issued against a respondent who is a minor less than 10 years of age. Venue for an initial action under section 2950 or 2950a of the revised judicature act of 1961, 1961 PA 236, MCL 600.2950 and 600.2950a, is proper in the county of residence of either the petitioner or respondent. If the respondent does not live in this state, venue for the initial action is proper in the petitioner's county of residence.
(i) In a proceeding under this chapter concerning a juvenile's care and supervision, the court may issue orders affecting a party as necessary. This subdivision does not apply after May 1, 2018. As used in this subdivision, "party" means 1 of the following:
(i) In a delinquency proceeding, the petitioner and juvenile.
(ii) In a child protective proceeding, the petitioner, department of human services, child, respondent, parent, guardian, or legal custodian, and any licensed child caring institution or child placing agency under contract with the department of human services to provide for a juvenile's care and supervision.
History: Add. 1944, 1st Ex. Sess., Act 54, Imd. Eff. Mar. 6, 1944
Am. 1947, Act 68, Imd. Eff. May 2, 1947
CL 1948, 712A.2
Am. 1953, Act 193, Eff. Oct. 2, 1953
Am. 1965, Act 182, Imd. Eff. July 15, 1965
Am. 1972, Act 175, Imd. Eff. June 16, 1972
Am. 1984, Act 131, Imd. Eff. June 1, 1984
Am. 1986, Act 203, Imd. Eff. July 25, 1986
Am. 1988, Act 53, Eff. Oct. 1, 1988
Am. 1988, Act 224, Eff. Apr. 1, 1989
Am. 1990, Act 314, Imd. Eff. Dec. 20, 1990
Am. 1994, Act 192, Eff. Oct. 1, 1994
Am. 1996, Act 250, Eff. Jan. 1, 1997
Am. 1996, Act 409, Eff. Jan. 1, 1998
Am. 1998, Act 474, Eff. Mar. 1, 1999
Am. 1998, Act 478, Eff. Jan. 12, 1999
Am. 1998, Act 530, Eff. July 1, 1999
Am. 2000, Act 55, Eff. Apr. 1, 2000
Am. 2001, Act 211, Eff. Apr. 1, 2002
Am. 2014, Act 342, Eff. Jan. 14, 2015
Am. 2014, Act 519, Imd. Eff. Jan. 14, 2015
Compiler's Notes: Section 3 of Act 53 of 1988 provides: “This amendatory act shall take effect June 1, 1988.” This section was amended by Act 172 of 1988 to read as follows: “This amendatory act shall take effect October 1, 1988.”
Former Law: See sections 2, 3, 4 and 5 of Ch. XII of Act 288 of 1939, and CL 1929, § 12834.
Popular Name: Probate Code
Popular Name: Juvenile Code
© 2017 Legislative Council, State of Michigan