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Act 451 of 1976
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THE REVISED SCHOOL CODE

Act 451 of 1976

AN ACT to provide a system of public instruction and elementary and secondary schools; to revise, consolidate, and clarify the laws relating to elementary and secondary education; to provide for the organization, regulation, and maintenance of schools, school districts, public school academies, intermediate school districts, and other public school entities; to prescribe rights, powers, duties, and privileges of schools, school districts, public school academies, intermediate school districts, and other public school entities; to provide for the regulation of school teachers and certain other school employees; to provide for school elections and to prescribe powers and duties with respect thereto; to provide for the levy and collection of taxes; to provide for the borrowing of money and issuance of bonds and other evidences of indebtedness; to establish a fund and provide for expenditures from that fund; to provide for and prescribe the powers and duties of certain state departments, the state board of education, and certain other boards and officials; to provide for licensure of boarding schools; to prescribe penalties; and to repeal acts and parts of acts.


History: 1976, Act 451, Imd. Eff. Jan. 13, 1977 ;-- Am. 1977, Act 43, Imd. Eff. June 29, 1977 ;-- Am. 1988, Act 339, Imd. Eff. Oct. 18, 1988 ;-- Am. 1990, Act 161, Imd. Eff. July 2, 1990 ;-- Am. 1995, Act 289, Eff. July 1, 1996 ;-- Am. 2003, Act 179, Imd. Eff. Oct. 3, 2003
Constitutionality: The Michigan School Reform Act does not violate federal and state constitutional protections, Moore v Detroit School Reform Board, 293 F3d 352 (CA 6 2002).
Compiler's Notes: Senate Bill 393 (SB 393) was enrolled on August 13, 2003, and presented to the governor for her approval on September 8, 2003, at 5:00 p.m. On September 18, 2003, the senate requested that the bill be returned to the senate. The governor granted the senate's request on that same date and returned the bill to that body (without objections), where a motion was made to vacate the enrollment and the motion prevailed. On September 23, 2003, the house of representatives approved a motion to send a letter to the senate agreeing with the senate's request that the governor return SB 393. Neither the Senate Journal nor the House Journal entries reveal any other action taken by the house of representatives regarding the return of SB 393.In order to determine whether SB 393 had become law, as requested, the attorney general examined whether SB 393 was recalled by concurrent action of the house of representatives and the senate within the 14-day period afforded the governor for vetoing a bill under the last sentence of Const 1963, art IV, § 33: “SB 393 was presented to the Governor on September 8, 2003, at 5:00 p.m. The 14-day period afforded for consideration, measured in hours and minutes, therefore expired on September 22, 2003 at 5:00 p.m. While the Senate had acted to recall the bill within that 14-day period (on September 18, 2003), the House did not. Its action concurring in the request to recall SB 393 was not taken until September 23, 2003. In the absence of concurrent action by both houses of the Legislature within the 14-day period, SB 393 was not effectively recalled and 'further legislative action thereon' was not authorized.” The attorney general declared that “in the absence of a return of the bill with objections, SB 393 therefore became law by operation of the last sentence of Const 1963, art IV, § 33.” OAG, 2003, No. 7139 (October 2, 2003).
Popular Name: Act 451


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan

The People of the State of Michigan enact:

DocumentTypeDescription
451-1976-1DivisionARTICLE 1 (380.1...380.761)
451-1976-2DivisionARTICLE 2 (380.805...380.1644)
451-1976-3DivisionARTICLE 3 (380.1701...380.1766)
451-1976-4DivisionARTICLE 4 (380.1801...380.1853)