THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3101 Security for payment of benefits required; period security required to be in effect; deletion of coverages; definitions; policy of insurance or other method of providing security; filing proof of security; “insurer” defined.

Sec. 3101.

(1) The owner or registrant of a motor vehicle required to be registered in this state shall maintain security for payment of benefits under personal protection insurance, property protection insurance, and residual liability insurance. Security shall only be required to be in effect during the period the motor vehicle is driven or moved upon a highway. Notwithstanding any other provision in this act, an insurer that has issued an automobile insurance policy on a motor vehicle that is not driven or moved upon a highway may allow the insured owner or registrant of the motor vehicle to delete a portion of the coverages under the policy and maintain the comprehensive coverage portion of the policy in effect.

(2) As used in this chapter:

(a) "Automobile insurance" means that term as defined in section 2102.

(b) "Highway" means that term as defined in section 20 of the Michigan vehicle code, 1949 PA 300, MCL 257.20.

(c) "Motorcycle" means a vehicle having a saddle or seat for the use of the rider, designed to travel on not more than 3 wheels in contact with the ground, which is equipped with a motor that exceeds 50 cubic centimeters piston displacement. The wheels on any attachment to the vehicle shall not be considered as wheels in contact with the ground. Motorcycle does not include a moped, as defined in section 32b of the Michigan vehicle code, 1949 PA 300, MCL 257.32b. Motorcycle does not include an ORV.

(d) "Motorcycle accident" means a loss involving the ownership, operation, maintenance, or use of a motorcycle as a motorcycle, but not involving the ownership, operation, maintenance, or use of a motor vehicle as a motor vehicle.

(e) "Motor vehicle" means a vehicle, including a trailer, operated or designed for operation upon a public highway by power other than muscular power which has more than 2 wheels. Motor vehicle does not include a motorcycle or a moped, as defined in section 32b of the Michigan vehicle code, 1949 PA 300, MCL 257.32b. Motor vehicle does not include a farm tractor or other implement of husbandry which is not subject to the registration requirements of the Michigan vehicle code pursuant to section 216 of the Michigan vehicle code, 1949 PA 300, MCL 257.216. Motor vehicle does not include an ORV.

(f) "Motor vehicle accident" means a loss involving the ownership, operation, maintenance, or use of a motor vehicle as a motor vehicle regardless of whether the accident also involves the ownership, operation, maintenance, or use of a motorcycle as a motorcycle.

(g) "ORV" means a motor-driven recreation vehicle designed for off-road use and capable of cross-country travel without benefit of road or trail, on or immediately over land, snow, ice, marsh, swampland, or other natural terrain. ORV includes, but is not limited to, a multitrack or multiwheel drive vehicle, a motorcycle or related 2-wheel, 3-wheel, or 4-wheel vehicle, an amphibious machine, a ground effect air cushion vehicle, an ATV as defined in section 81101 of the natural resources and environmental protection act, 1994 PA 451, MCL 324.81101, or other means of transportation deriving motive power from a source other than muscle or wind. ORV does not include a vehicle described in this subdivision that is registered for use upon a public highway and has the security described in section 3101 or 3103 in effect.

(h) "Owner" means any of the following:

(i) A person renting a motor vehicle or having the use thereof, under a lease or otherwise, for a period that is greater than 30 days.

(ii) A person who holds the legal title to a vehicle, other than a person engaged in the business of leasing motor vehicles who is the lessor of a motor vehicle pursuant to a lease providing for the use of the motor vehicle by the lessee for a period that is greater than 30 days.

(iii) A person who has the immediate right of possession of a motor vehicle under an installment sale contract.

(i) "Registrant" does not include a person engaged in the business of leasing motor vehicles who is the lessor of a motor vehicle pursuant to a lease providing for the use of the motor vehicle by the lessee for a period that is greater than 30 days.

(3) Security may be provided under a policy issued by an insurer duly authorized to transact business in this state which affords insurance for the payment of benefits described in subsection (1). A policy of insurance represented or sold as providing security is considered to provide insurance for the payment of the benefits.

(4) Security required by subsection (1) may be provided by any other method approved by the secretary of state as affording security equivalent to that afforded by a policy of insurance, if proof of the security is filed and continuously maintained with the secretary of state throughout the period the motor vehicle is driven or moved upon a highway. The person filing the security has all the obligations and rights of an insurer under this chapter. When the context permits, "insurer" as used in this chapter, includes any person filing the security as provided in this section.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 1975, Act 329, Eff. Mar. 31, 1976 ;-- Am. 1977, Act 54, Imd. Eff. July 6, 1977 ;-- Am. 1980, Act 445, Imd. Eff. Jan. 15, 1981 ;-- Am. 1984, Act 84, Imd. Eff. Apr. 19, 1984 ;-- Am. 1987, Act 168, Imd. Eff. Nov. 9, 1987 ;-- Am. 1988, Act 126, Imd. Eff. May 23, 1988 ;-- Am. 2008, Act 241, Imd. Eff. July 17, 2008
Constitutionality: Subsection (1) of this section is unconstitutional but subsection (2) does not violate the due process and equal protection clauses. Shavers v Attorney General, 402 Mich 554; 267 NW2d 72 (1978).
Compiler's Notes: Act 143 of 1993, which amended this section, was submitted to the people by referendum petition (as Proposal C) and rejected by a majority of the votes cast at the November 8, 1994, general election.
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3101a Providing certificates of insurance to policyholder; filing copy with secretary of state; requirements; "private passenger nonfleet automobile" defined; vehicle identification number as proof of vehicle insurance; prohibited acts; misdemeanor; penalty; report.

Sec. 3101a.

(1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, an insurer, in conjunction with the issuance of an automobile insurance policy, as defined in section 3303, shall provide 2 certificates of insurance for each insured vehicle. The insurer shall mark 1 of the certificates as the secretary of state's copy, which copy, except as otherwise provided in this section, shall be filed with the secretary of state by the policyholder upon application for a vehicle registration. The secretary of state shall not maintain the certificate of insurance received under this subsection on file.

(2) Beginning December 30, 2011, an insurer, in conjunction with the issuance of an automobile insurance policy, shall provide to the insured 1 certificate of insurance for each insured vehicle, and for private passenger nonfleet automobiles listed on the policy shall supply to the secretary of state, in the format and timeline as required by the secretary of state, which shall not be required more frequently than every 14 days, the automobile insurer's name, the named insured, the named insured's address, the vehicle identification number for each such vehicle listed on the policy, and the policy number. Until December 31, 2014, the secretary of state shall provide policy information received under this subsection to the department of community health as required for the department of community health to comply with 2006 PA 593, MCL 550.281 to 550.289. In determining the format under this subsection, the secretary of state shall consult with insurers. As used in this subsection, "private passenger nonfleet automobile" means that term as defined in section 3303.

(3) The secretary of state shall accept as proof of vehicle insurance a transmission of the insured vehicle's vehicle identification number. Policy information submitted by an insurer and received by the secretary of state under this section is confidential, is not subject to the freedom of information act, 1976 PA 442, MCL 15.231 to 15.246, and shall not be disclosed to any person except the department of community health for purposes of 2006 PA 593, MCL 550.281 to 550.289, or pursuant to an order by a court of competent jurisdiction in connection with a claim or fraud investigation or prosecution. The transmission to the secretary of state of a vehicle identification number is proof of insurance to the secretary of state for motor vehicle registration purposes only and is not evidence that a policy of insurance actually exists between an insurer and an individual.

(4) A person who supplies false information to the secretary of state under this section or who issues or uses an altered, fraudulent, or counterfeit certificate of insurance is guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment for not more than 1 year or a fine of not more than $1,000.00, or both.

(5) The department of community health shall report to the senate and house of representatives appropriations committees and standing committees concerning insurance issues on the number of claims and total dollar amount recovered from automobile insurers pursuant to 2006 PA 593, MCL 550.281 to 550.289. The reports required by this subsection shall be given to the appropriations committees and standing committees concerning insurance issues by December 30, 2012 and December 30, 2013 and shall cover the immediately preceding 12-month period.


History: Add. 1980, Act 461, Eff. Apr. 1, 1981 ;-- Am. 1995, Act 288, Imd. Eff. Jan. 9, 1996 ;-- Am. 1996, Act 456, Imd. Eff. Dec. 23, 1996 ;-- Am. 2011, Act 91, Imd. Eff. July 15, 2011
Compiler's Notes: Act 143 of 1993, which amended this section, was submitted to the people by referendum petition (as Proposal C) and rejected by a majority of the votes cast at the November 8, 1994, general election.
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3101b Repealed. 2011, Act 91, Imd. Eff. July 15, 2011.


Compiler's Notes: The repealed section pertained to providing proof of vehicle insurance through insurance verification board.


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3101c Standard certified statement.

Sec. 3101c.

The commissioner shall prescribe a standard certified statement that automobile insurers shall use to show pursuant to section 227a(1)(a) of the Michigan vehicle code, Act No. 300 of the Public Acts of 1949, being section 257.227a of the Michigan Compiled Laws, that a vehicle is insured under a 6-month prepaid, noncancelable policy.


History: Add. 1995, Act 288, Imd. Eff. Jan. 9, 1996
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3102 Nonresident owner or registrant of motor vehicle or motorcycle to maintain security for payment of benefits; operation of motor vehicle or motorcycle by owner, registrant, or other person without security; penalty; failure to produce evidence of security; rebuttable presumption.

Sec. 3102.

(1) A nonresident owner or registrant of a motor vehicle or motorcycle not registered in this state shall not operate or permit the motor vehicle or motorcycle to be operated in this state for an aggregate of more than 30 days in any calendar year unless he or she continuously maintains security for the payment of benefits pursuant to this chapter.

(2) An owner or registrant of a motor vehicle or motorcycle with respect to which security is required, who operates the motor vehicle or motorcycle or permits it to be operated upon a public highway in this state, without having in full force and effect security complying with this section or section 3101 or 3103 is guilty of a misdemeanor. A person who operates a motor vehicle or motorcycle upon a public highway in this state with the knowledge that the owner or registrant does not have security in full force and effect is guilty of a misdemeanor. A person convicted of a misdemeanor under this section shall be fined not less than $200.00 nor more than $500.00, imprisoned for not more than 1 year, or both.

(3) The failure of a person to produce evidence that a motor vehicle or motorcycle has in full force and effect security complying with this section or section 3101 or 3103 on the date of the issuance of the citation, creates a rebuttable presumption in a prosecution under subsection (2) that the motor vehicle or motorcycle did not have in full force and effect security complying with this section or section 3101 or 3103 on the date of the issuance of the citation.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 1975, Act 329, Eff. Mar. 31, 1976 ;-- Am. 1979, Act 145, Imd. Eff. Nov. 13, 1979 ;-- Am. 1980, Act 446, Imd. Eff. Jan. 15, 1981 ;-- Am. 1987, Act 187, Eff. Mar. 30, 1988 ;-- Am. 1990, Act 79, Imd. Eff. May 24, 1990
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3103 Owner or registrant of motorcycle; security required; offering security for payment of first-party medical benefits; rates, deductibles, and provisions.

Sec. 3103.

(1) An owner or registrant of a motorcycle shall provide security against loss resulting from liability imposed by law for property damage, bodily injury, or death suffered by a person arising out of the ownership, maintenance, or use of that motorcycle. The security shall conform with the requirements of section 3009(1).

(2) Each insurer transacting insurance in this state which affords coverage for a motorcycle as described in subsection (1) also shall offer, to an owner or registrant of a motorcycle, security for the payment of first-party medical benefits only, in increments of $5,000.00, payable in the event the owner or registrant is involved in a motorcycle accident. An insurer providing first-party medical benefits may offer, at appropriate premium rates, deductibles, provisions for the coordination of these benefits, and provisions for the subtraction of other benefits provided or required to be provided under the laws of any state or the federal government, subject to the prior approval of the commissioner. These deductibles and provisions shall apply only to benefits payable to the person named in the policy, the spouse of the insured, and any relative of either domiciled in the same household.


History: Add. 1975, Act 329, Eff. Mar. 31, 1976 ;-- Am. 1977, Act 54, Imd. Eff. July 6, 1977 ;-- Am. 1980, Act 445, Eff. Jan. 15, 1981 ;-- Am. 1986, Act 173, Imd. Eff. July 7, 1986
Constitutionality: The legislative scheme which allows motorcyclists to receive no-fault benefits for personal injuries without requiring them to maintain no-fault security does not deny automobile drivers equal protection or due process of law. Underhill v Safeco Insurance Company, 407 Mich 175; 284 NW2d 463 (1979).
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3104 Catastrophic claims association.

Sec. 3104.

(1) An unincorporated, nonprofit association to be known as the catastrophic claims association, hereinafter referred to as the association, is created. Each insurer engaged in writing insurance coverages that provide the security required by section 3101(1) within this state, as a condition of its authority to transact insurance in this state, shall be a member of the association and shall be bound by the plan of operation of the association. Each insurer engaged in writing insurance coverages that provide the security required by section 3103(1) within this state, as a condition of its authority to transact insurance in this state, shall be considered a member of the association, but only for purposes of premiums under subsection (7)(d). Except as expressly provided in this section, the association is not subject to any laws of this state with respect to insurers, but in all other respects the association is subject to the laws of this state to the extent that the association would be if it were an insurer organized and subsisting under chapter 50.

(2) The association shall provide and each member shall accept indemnification for 100% of the amount of ultimate loss sustained under personal protection insurance coverages in excess of the following amounts in each loss occurrence:

(a) For a motor vehicle accident policy issued or renewed before July 1, 2002, $250,000.00.

(b) For a motor vehicle accident policy issued or renewed during the period July 1, 2002 to June 30, 2003, $300,000.00.

(c) For a motor vehicle accident policy issued or renewed during the period July 1, 2003 to June 30, 2004, $325,000.00.

(d) For a motor vehicle accident policy issued or renewed during the period July 1, 2004 to June 30, 2005, $350,000.00.

(e) For a motor vehicle accident policy issued or renewed during the period July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2006, $375,000.00.

(f) For a motor vehicle accident policy issued or renewed during the period July 1, 2006 to June 30, 2007, $400,000.00.

(g) For a motor vehicle accident policy issued or renewed during the period July 1, 2007 to June 30, 2008, $420,000.00.

(h) For a motor vehicle accident policy issued or renewed during the period July 1, 2008 to June 30, 2009, $440,000.00.

(i) For a motor vehicle accident policy issued or renewed during the period July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2010, $460,000.00.

(j) For a motor vehicle accident policy issued or renewed during the period July 1, 2010 to June 30, 2011, $480,000.00.

(k) For a motor vehicle accident policy issued or renewed during the period July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2013, $500,000.00. Beginning July 1, 2013, this $500,000.00 amount shall be increased biennially on July 1 of each odd-numbered year, for policies issued or renewed before July 1 of the following odd-numbered year, by the lesser of 6% or the consumer price index, and rounded to the nearest $5,000.00. This biennial adjustment shall be calculated by the association by January 1 of the year of its July 1 effective date.

(3) An insurer may withdraw from the association only upon ceasing to write insurance that provides the security required by section 3101(1) in this state.

(4) An insurer whose membership in the association has been terminated by withdrawal shall continue to be bound by the plan of operation, and upon withdrawal, all unpaid premiums that have been charged to the withdrawing member are payable as of the effective date of the withdrawal.

(5) An unsatisfied net liability to the association of an insolvent member shall be assumed by and apportioned among the remaining members of the association as provided in the plan of operation. The association has all rights allowed by law on behalf of the remaining members against the estate or funds of the insolvent member for sums due the association.

(6) If a member has been merged or consolidated into another insurer or another insurer has reinsured a member's entire business that provides the security required by section 3101(1) in this state, the member and successors in interest of the member remain liable for the member's obligations.

(7) The association shall do all of the following on behalf of the members of the association:

(a) Assume 100% of all liability as provided in subsection (2).

(b) Establish procedures by which members shall promptly report to the association each claim that, on the basis of the injuries or damages sustained, may reasonably be anticipated to involve the association if the member is ultimately held legally liable for the injuries or damages. Solely for the purpose of reporting claims, the member shall in all instances consider itself legally liable for the injuries or damages. The member shall also advise the association of subsequent developments likely to materially affect the interest of the association in the claim.

(c) Maintain relevant loss and expense data relative to all liabilities of the association and require each member to furnish statistics, in connection with liabilities of the association, at the times and in the form and detail as may be required by the plan of operation.

(d) In a manner provided for in the plan of operation, calculate and charge to members of the association a total premium sufficient to cover the expected losses and expenses of the association that the association will likely incur during the period for which the premium is applicable. The premium shall include an amount to cover incurred but not reported losses for the period and may be adjusted for any excess or deficient premiums from previous periods. Excesses or deficiencies from previous periods may be fully adjusted in a single period or may be adjusted over several periods in a manner provided for in the plan of operation. Each member shall be charged an amount equal to that member's total written car years of insurance providing the security required by section 3101(1) or 3103(1), or both, written in this state during the period to which the premium applies, multiplied by the average premium per car. The average premium per car shall be the total premium calculated divided by the total written car years of insurance providing the security required by section 3101(1) or 3103(1) written in this state of all members during the period to which the premium applies. A member shall be charged a premium for a historic vehicle that is insured with the member of 20% of the premium charged for a car insured with the member. As used in this subdivision:

(i) “Car” includes a motorcycle but does not include a historic vehicle.

(ii) “Historic vehicle” means a vehicle that is a registered historic vehicle under section 803a or 803p of the Michigan vehicle code, 1949 PA 300, MCL 257.803a and 257.803p.

(e) Require and accept the payment of premiums from members of the association as provided for in the plan of operation. The association shall do either of the following:

(i) Require payment of the premium in full within 45 days after the premium charge.

(ii) Require payment of the premiums to be made periodically to cover the actual cash obligations of the association.

(f) Receive and distribute all sums required by the operation of the association.

(g) Establish procedures for reviewing claims procedures and practices of members of the association. If the claims procedures or practices of a member are considered inadequate to properly service the liabilities of the association, the association may undertake or may contract with another person, including another member, to adjust or assist in the adjustment of claims for the member on claims that create a potential liability to the association and may charge the cost of the adjustment to the member.

(8) In addition to other powers granted to it by this section, the association may do all of the following:

(a) Sue and be sued in the name of the association. A judgment against the association shall not create any direct liability against the individual members of the association. The association may provide for the indemnification of its members, members of the board of directors of the association, and officers, employees, and other persons lawfully acting on behalf of the association.

(b) Reinsure all or any portion of its potential liability with reinsurers licensed to transact insurance in this state or approved by the commissioner.

(c) Provide for appropriate housing, equipment, and personnel as may be necessary to assure the efficient operation of the association.

(d) Pursuant to the plan of operation, adopt reasonable rules for the administration of the association, enforce those rules, and delegate authority, as the board considers necessary to assure the proper administration and operation of the association consistent with the plan of operation.

(e) Contract for goods and services, including independent claims management, actuarial, investment, and legal services, from others within or without this state to assure the efficient operation of the association.

(f) Hear and determine complaints of a company or other interested party concerning the operation of the association.

(g) Perform other acts not specifically enumerated in this section that are necessary or proper to accomplish the purposes of the association and that are not inconsistent with this section or the plan of operation.

(9) A board of directors is created, hereinafter referred to as the board, which shall be responsible for the operation of the association consistent with the plan of operation and this section.

(10) The plan of operation shall provide for all of the following:

(a) The establishment of necessary facilities.

(b) The management and operation of the association.

(c) Procedures to be utilized in charging premiums, including adjustments from excess or deficient premiums from prior periods.

(d) Procedures governing the actual payment of premiums to the association.

(e) Reimbursement of each member of the board by the association for actual and necessary expenses incurred on association business.

(f) The investment policy of the association.

(g) Any other matters required by or necessary to effectively implement this section.

(11) Each board shall include members that would contribute a total of not less than 40% of the total premium calculated pursuant to subsection (7)(d). Each director shall be entitled to 1 vote. The initial term of office of a director shall be 2 years.

(12) As part of the plan of operation, the board shall adopt rules providing for the composition and term of successor boards to the initial board, consistent with the membership composition requirements in subsections (11) and (13). Terms of the directors shall be staggered so that the terms of all the directors do not expire at the same time and so that a director does not serve a term of more than 4 years.

(13) The board shall consist of 5 directors, and the commissioner shall be an ex officio member of the board without vote.

(14) Each director shall be appointed by the commissioner and shall serve until that member's successor is selected and qualified. The chairperson of the board shall be elected by the board. A vacancy on the board shall be filled by the commissioner consistent with the plan of operation.

(15) After the board is appointed, the board shall meet as often as the chairperson, the commissioner, or the plan of operation shall require, or at the request of any 3 members of the board. The chairperson shall retain the right to vote on all issues. Four members of the board constitute a quorum.

(16) An annual report of the operations of the association in a form and detail as may be determined by the board shall be furnished to each member.

(17) Not more than 60 days after the initial organizational meeting of the board, the board shall submit to the commissioner for approval a proposed plan of operation consistent with the objectives and provisions of this section, which shall provide for the economical, fair, and nondiscriminatory administration of the association and for the prompt and efficient provision of indemnity. If a plan is not submitted within this 60-day period, then the commissioner, after consultation with the board, shall formulate and place into effect a plan consistent with this section.

(18) The plan of operation, unless approved sooner in writing, shall be considered to meet the requirements of this section if it is not disapproved by written order of the commissioner within 30 days after the date of its submission. Before disapproval of all or any part of the proposed plan of operation, the commissioner shall notify the board in what respect the plan of operation fails to meet the requirements and objectives of this section. If the board fails to submit a revised plan of operation that meets the requirements and objectives of this section within the 30-day period, the commissioner shall enter an order accordingly and shall immediately formulate and place into effect a plan consistent with the requirements and objectives of this section.

(19) The proposed plan of operation or amendments to the plan of operation are subject to majority approval by the board, ratified by a majority of the membership having a vote, with voting rights being apportioned according to the premiums charged in subsection (7)(d) and are subject to approval by the commissioner.

(20) Upon approval by the commissioner and ratification by the members of the plan submitted, or upon the promulgation of a plan by the commissioner, each insurer authorized to write insurance providing the security required by section 3101(1) in this state, as provided in this section, is bound by and shall formally subscribe to and participate in the plan approved as a condition of maintaining its authority to transact insurance in this state.

(21) The association is subject to all the reporting, loss reserve, and investment requirements of the commissioner to the same extent as would a member of the association.

(22) Premiums charged members by the association shall be recognized in the rate-making procedures for insurance rates in the same manner that expenses and premium taxes are recognized.

(23) The commissioner or an authorized representative of the commissioner may visit the association at any time and examine any and all the association's affairs.

(24) The association does not have liability for losses occurring before July 1, 1978.

(25) As used in this section:

(a) “Consumer price index” means the percentage of change in the consumer price index for all urban consumers in the United States city average for all items for the 24 months prior to October 1 of the year prior to the July 1 effective date of the biennial adjustment under subsection (2)(k) as reported by the United States department of labor, bureau of labor statistics, and as certified by the commissioner.

(b) “Motor vehicle accident policy” means a policy providing the coverages required under section 3101(1).

(c) “Ultimate loss” means the actual loss amounts that a member is obligated to pay and that are paid or payable by the member, and do not include claim expenses. An ultimate loss is incurred by the association on the date that the loss occurs.


History: Add. 1978, Act 136, Eff. July 1, 1978 ;-- Am. 1980, Act 445, Imd. Eff. Jan. 15, 1981 ;-- Am. 2001, Act 3, Eff. July 1, 2002 ;-- Am. 2002, Act 662, Eff. July 1, 2003
Compiler's Notes: Act 143 of 1993, which amended this section, was submitted to the people by referendum petition (as Proposal C) and rejected by a majority of the votes cast at the November 8, 1994, general election.For transfer of position of commissioner of office of financial and insurance regulation as member or chairperson of board or commission to director of department of insurance and financial services, see E.R.O. No. 2013-1, compiled at MCL 550.991.
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3105 Insurer liable for personal protection benefits without regard to fault; “bodily injury” and “accidental bodily injury” defined.

Sec. 3105.

(1) Under personal protection insurance an insurer is liable to pay benefits for accidental bodily injury arising out of the ownership, operation, maintenance or use of a motor vehicle as a motor vehicle, subject to the provisions of this chapter.

(2) Personal protection insurance benefits are due under this chapter without regard to fault.

(3) Bodily injury includes death resulting therefrom and damage to or loss of a person's prosthetic devices in connection with the injury.

(4) Bodily injury is accidental as to a person claiming personal protection insurance benefits unless suffered intentionally by the injured person or caused intentionally by the claimant. Even though a person knows that bodily injury is substantially certain to be caused by his act or omission, he does not cause or suffer injury intentionally if he acts or refrains from acting for the purpose of averting injury to property or to any person including himself.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3106 Accidental bodily injury arising out of ownership, operation, maintenance, or use of parked vehicle as motor vehicle; conditions.

Sec. 3106.

(1) Accidental bodily injury does not arise out of the ownership, operation, maintenance, or use of a parked vehicle as a motor vehicle unless any of the following occur:

(a) The vehicle was parked in such a way as to cause unreasonable risk of the bodily injury which occurred.

(b) Except as provided in subsection (2), the injury was a direct result of physical contact with equipment permanently mounted on the vehicle, while the equipment was being operated or used, or property being lifted onto or lowered from the vehicle in the loading or unloading process.

(c) Except as provided in subsection (2), the injury was sustained by a person while occupying, entering into, or alighting from the vehicle.

(2) Accidental bodily injury does not arise out of the ownership, operation, maintenance, or use of a parked vehicle as a motor vehicle if benefits under the worker's disability compensation act of 1969, Act No. 317 of the Public Acts of 1969, as amended, being sections 418.101 to 418.941 of the Michigan Compiled Laws, or under a similar law of another state or under a similar federal law, are available to an employee who sustains the injury in the course of his or her employment while doing either of the following:

(a) Loading, unloading, or doing mechanical work on a vehicle unless the injury arose from the use or operation of another vehicle. As used in this subdivision, “another vehicle” does not include a motor vehicle being loaded on, unloaded from, or secured to, as cargo or freight, a motor vehicle.

(b) Entering into or alighting from the vehicle unless the injury was sustained while entering into or alighting from the vehicle immediately after the vehicle became disabled. This subdivision shall not apply if the injury arose from the use or operation of another vehicle. As used in this subdivision, “another vehicle” does not include a motor vehicle being loaded on, unloaded from or secured to, as cargo or freight, a motor vehicle.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 1981, Act 209, Eff. Jan. 1, 1982 ;-- Am. 1986, Act 318, Eff. June 1, 1987
Compiler's Notes: Section 2 of Act 209 of 1981 provides: “This amendatory act shall take effect January 1, 1982 and shall be applicable to all causes of action which occur after the effective date of this amendatory act.”
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3107 Expenses and work loss for which personal protection benefits payable.

Sec. 3107.

(1) Except as provided in subsection (2), personal protection insurance benefits are payable for the following:

(a) Allowable expenses consisting of all reasonable charges incurred for reasonably necessary products, services and accommodations for an injured person's care, recovery, or rehabilitation. Allowable expenses within personal protection insurance coverage shall not include either of the following:

(i) Charges for a hospital room in excess of a reasonable and customary charge for semiprivate accommodations except if the injured person requires special or intensive care.

(ii) Funeral and burial expenses in excess of the amount set forth in the policy which shall not be less than $1,750.00 or more than $5,000.00.

(b) Work loss consisting of loss of income from work an injured person would have performed during the first 3 years after the date of the accident if he or she had not been injured. Work loss does not include any loss after the date on which the injured person dies. Because the benefits received from personal protection insurance for loss of income are not taxable income, the benefits payable for such loss of income shall be reduced 15% unless the claimant presents to the insurer in support of his or her claim reasonable proof of a lower value of the income tax advantage in his or her case, in which case the lower value shall apply. For the period beginning October 1, 2012 through September 30, 2013, the benefits payable for work loss sustained in a single 30-day period and the income earned by an injured person for work during the same period together shall not exceed $5,189.00, which maximum shall apply pro rata to any lesser period of work loss. Beginning October 1, 2013, the maximum shall be adjusted annually to reflect changes in the cost of living under rules prescribed by the commissioner but any change in the maximum shall apply only to benefits arising out of accidents occurring subsequent to the date of change in the maximum.

(c) Expenses not exceeding $20.00 per day, reasonably incurred in obtaining ordinary and necessary services in lieu of those that, if he or she had not been injured, an injured person would have performed during the first 3 years after the date of the accident, not for income but for the benefit of himself or herself or of his or her dependent.

(2) Both of the following apply to personal protection insurance benefits payable under subsection (1):

(a) A person who is 60 years of age or older and in the event of an accidental bodily injury would not be eligible to receive work loss benefits under subsection (1)(b) may waive coverage for work loss benefits by signing a waiver on a form provided by the insurer. An insurer shall offer a reduced premium rate to a person who waives coverage under this subsection for work loss benefits. Waiver of coverage for work loss benefits applies only to work loss benefits payable to the person or persons who have signed the waiver form.

(b) An insurer shall not be required to provide coverage for the medical use of marihuana or for expenses related to the medical use of marihuana.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 1988, Act 312, Eff. Mar. 30, 1989 ;-- Am. 1991, Act 191, Eff. Jan. 1, 1992 ;-- Am. 2012, Act 542, Imd. Eff. Jan. 2, 2013
Constitutionality: The legislature did not violate constitutional due process or equal protection in providing for cost-of-living increases for no-fault insurance work loss benefits under subdivision (b) of this section, but not for no-fault insurance survivors' loss benefits under MCL 500.3108. Davey v Detroit Automobile Inter-Insurance Exchange, 414 Mich 1; 322 NW2d 541 (1982).
Compiler's Notes: Act 143 of 1993, which amended this section, was submitted to the people by referendum petition (as Proposal C) and rejected by a majority of the votes cast at the November 8, 1994, general election.
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
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Admin Rule: R 500.811 of the Michigan Administrative Code.


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3107a Basis of work loss for certain injured persons.

Sec. 3107a.

Subject to the provisions of section 3107(1)(b), work loss for an injured person who is temporarily unemployed at the time of the accident or during the period of disability shall be based on earned income for the last month employed full time preceding the accident.


History: Add. 1975, Act 311, Imd. Eff. Dec. 22, 1975 ;-- Am. 1991, Act 191, Eff. Jan. 1, 1992
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© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3107b Reimbursement or coverage for certain expenses not required.

Sec. 3107b.

Reimbursement or coverage for expenses within personal protection insurance coverage under section 3107 is not required for either of the following:

(a) A practice of optometric service, unless that service was included in the definition of practice of optometry under section 17401 of the public health code, 1978 PA 368, MCL 333.17401, as of May 20, 1992.

(b) A practice of chiropractic service, unless that service was included in the definition of practice of chiropractic under section 16401 of the public health code, 1978 PA 368, MCL 333.16401, as of January 1, 2009.


History: Add. 1994, Act 438, Eff. Mar. 30, 1995 ;-- Am. 2009, Act 222, Imd. Eff. Jan. 5, 2010
Compiler's Notes: Senate Bill No. 493 was not enacted into law by the 87th Legislature.
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© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3108 Survivor's loss; benefits.

Sec. 3108.

(1) Except as provided in subsection (2), personal protection insurance benefits are payable for a survivor's loss which consists of a loss, after the date on which the deceased died, of contributions of tangible things of economic value, not including services, that dependents of the deceased at the time of the deceased's death would have received for support during their dependency from the deceased if the deceased had not suffered the accidental bodily injury causing death and expenses, not exceeding $20.00 per day, reasonably incurred by these dependents during their dependency and after the date on which the deceased died in obtaining ordinary and necessary services in lieu of those that the deceased would have performed for their benefit if the deceased had not suffered the injury causing death. Except as provided in section (2) the benefits payable for a survivors' loss in connection with the death of a person in a single 30-day period shall not exceed $1,000.00 for accidents occurring before October 1, 1978, and shall not exceed $1,475.00 for accidents occurring on or after October 1, 1978, and is not payable beyond the first three years after the date of the accident.

(2) The maximum payable shall be adjusted annually to reflect changes in the cost of living under rules prescribed by the commissioner. A change in the maximum shall apply only to benefits arising out of accidents occurring subsequent to the date of change in the maximum. The maximum shall apply to the aggregate benefits for all survivors payable under this section on account of the death of any one person.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 1978, Act 459, Imd. Eff. Oct. 16, 1978
Constitutionality: The legislature did not violate constitutional due process or equal protection in providing for cost-of-living increases for no-fault insurance work loss benefits under MCL 500.3107(b), but not for no-fault insurance survivors' loss benefits under this section. Davey v Detroit Automobile Inter-Insurance Exchange, 414 Mich 1; 322 NW2d 541 (1982).
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3109 Subtraction of other benefits from personal protection benefits; injured person defined; deductible provision.

Sec. 3109.

(1) Benefits provided or required to be provided under the laws of any state or the federal government shall be subtracted from the personal protection insurance benefits otherwise payable for the injury under this chapter.

(2) An injured person is a natural person suffering accidental bodily injury.

(3) An insurer providing personal protection insurance benefits under this chapter may offer, at appropriately reduced premium rates, a deductible of a specified dollar amount. This deductible may be applicable to all or any specified types of personal protection insurance benefits, but shall apply only to benefits payable to the person named in the policy, his or her spouse, and any relative of either domiciled in the same household.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 2012, Act 454, Imd. Eff. Dec. 27, 2012
Constitutionality: In O'Donnel v State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Company, 404 Mich 524; 273 NW2d 829 (1979), the Michigan supreme court held that MCL 500.3109(1) does not violate the due process clause or the equal protection clause of the state or federal constitutions.In Underhill v Safeco Insurance Company, 407 Mich 175; 284 NW2d 463 (1979), the Michigan supreme court held that subsection (3) of this section authorizing the commissioner to approve deductibles was not an unconstitutional delegation of authority.The Michigan supreme court in Mathis v Interstate Motor Freight System, 408 Mich 164; 289 NW2d 708 (1980), held that MCL 500.3109(1) as applied to workers' compensation benefits is sustainable under the equal protection clause of the Michigan constitution.
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© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3109a Offering deductibles and exclusions reasonably related to other health and accident coverage; rates; approval; applicability.

Sec. 3109a.

An insurer providing personal protection insurance benefits under this chapter may offer, at appropriately reduced premium rates, deductibles and exclusions reasonably related to other health and accident coverage on the insured. Any deductibles and exclusions offered under this section are subject to prior approval by the commissioner and shall apply only to benefits payable to the person named in the policy, the spouse of the insured, and any relative of either domiciled in the same household.


History: Add. 1974, Act 72, Eff. June 4, 1974 ;-- Am. 2012, Act 454, Imd. Eff. Dec. 27, 2012
Constitutionality: In O'Donnel v State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Company, 404 Mich 524; 273 NW2d 829 (1979), the Michigan supreme court declared this statute constitutional.
Compiler's Notes: Act 143 of 1993, which amended this section, was submitted to the people by referendum petition (as Proposal C) and rejected by a majority of the votes cast at the November 8, 1994, general election.
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3110 Dependents of deceased person; termination of dependency; accrual of personal protection benefits.

Sec. 3110.

(1) The following persons are conclusively presumed to be dependents of a deceased person:

(a) A wife is dependent on a husband with whom she lives at the time of his death.

(b) A husband is dependent on a wife with whom he lives at the time of her death.

(c) A child while under the age of 18 years, or over that age but physically or mentally incapacitated from earning, is dependent on the parent with whom he lives or from whom he receives support regularly at the time of the death of the parent.

(2) In all other cases, questions of dependency and the extent of dependency shall be determined in accordance with the facts as they exist at the time of death.

(3) The dependency of a surviving spouse terminates upon death or remarriage. The dependency of any other person terminates upon the death of the person and continues only so long as the person is under the age of 18 years, physically or mentally incapacitated from earning, or engaged full time in a formal program of academic or vocational education or training.

(4) Personal protection insurance benefits payable for accidental bodily injury accrue not when the injury occurs but as the allowable expense, work loss or survivors' loss is incurred.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3111 Payment of personal protection benefits for accident occurring out of state.

Sec. 3111.

Personal protection insurance benefits are payable for accidental bodily injury suffered in an accident occurring out of this state, if the accident occurs within the United States, its territories and possessions or in Canada, and the person whose injury is the basis of the claim was at the time of the accident a named insured under a personal protection insurance policy, his spouse, a relative of either domiciled in the same household or an occupant of a vehicle involved in the accident whose owner or registrant was insured under a personal protection insurance policy or has provided security approved by the secretary of state under subsection (4) of section 3101.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973
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Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3112 Persons to whom personal protection benefits payable; discharge of insurer's liability.

Sec. 3112.

Personal protection insurance benefits are payable to or for the benefit of an injured person or, in case of his death, to or for the benefit of his dependents. Payment by an insurer in good faith of personal protection insurance benefits, to or for the benefit of a person who it believes is entitled to the benefits, discharges the insurer's liability to the extent of the payments unless the insurer has been notified in writing of the claim of some other person. If there is doubt about the proper person to receive the benefits or the proper apportionment among the persons entitled thereto, the insurer, the claimant or any other interested person may apply to the circuit court for an appropriate order. The court may designate the payees and make an equitable apportionment, taking into account the relationship of the payees to the injured person and other factors as the court considers appropriate. In the absence of a court order directing otherwise the insurer may pay:

(a) To the dependents of the injured person, the personal protection insurance benefits accrued before his death without appointment of an administrator or executor.

(b) To the surviving spouse, the personal protection insurance benefits due any dependent children living with the spouse.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3113 Persons not entitled to personal protection benefits.

Sec. 3113.

A person is not entitled to be paid personal protection insurance benefits for accidental bodily injury if at the time of the accident any of the following circumstances existed:

(a) The person was using a motor vehicle or motorcycle which he or she had taken unlawfully, unless the person reasonably believed that he or she was entitled to take and use the vehicle.

(b) The person was the owner or registrant of a motor vehicle or motorcycle involved in the accident with respect to which the security required by section 3101 or 3103 was not in effect.

(c) The person was not a resident of this state, was an occupant of a motor vehicle or motorcycle not registered in this state, and was not insured by an insurer which has filed a certification in compliance with section 3163.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 1986, Act 93, Eff. July 8, 1986
Compiler's Notes: Section 2 of Act 93 of 1986 provides: “This amendatory act shall not apply to causes of action arising before the effective date of this amendatory act.”
Popular Name: Act 218
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© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3114 Persons entitled to personal protection insurance benefits or personal injury benefits; recoupment barred; order of priority for claim of motor vehicle occupant or motorcycle operator or passenger; 2 or more insurers in same order of priority; partial recoupment.

Sec. 3114.

(1) Except as provided in subsections (2), (3), and (5), a personal protection insurance policy described in section 3101(1) applies to accidental bodily injury to the person named in the policy, the person's spouse, and a relative of either domiciled in the same household, if the injury arises from a motor vehicle accident. A personal injury insurance policy described in section 3103(2) applies to accidental bodily injury to the person named in the policy, the person's spouse, and a relative of either domiciled in the same household, if the injury arises from a motorcycle accident. When personal protection insurance benefits or personal injury benefits described in section 3103(2) are payable to or for the benefit of an injured person under his or her own policy and would also be payable under the policy of his or her spouse, relative, or relative's spouse, the injured person's insurer shall pay all of the benefits and is not entitled to recoupment from the other insurer.

(2) A person suffering accidental bodily injury while an operator or a passenger of a motor vehicle operated in the business of transporting passengers shall receive the personal protection insurance benefits to which the person is entitled from the insurer of the motor vehicle. This subsection does not apply to a passenger in the following, unless that passenger is not entitled to personal protection insurance benefits under any other policy:

(a) A school bus, as defined by the department of education, providing transportation not prohibited by law.

(b) A bus operated by a common carrier of passengers certified by the department of transportation.

(c) A bus operating under a government sponsored transportation program.

(d) A bus operated by or providing service to a nonprofit organization.

(e) A taxicab insured as prescribed in section 3101 or 3102.

(f) A bus operated by a canoe or other watercraft, bicycle, or horse livery used only to transport passengers to or from a destination point.

(3) An employee, his or her spouse, or a relative of either domiciled in the same household, who suffers accidental bodily injury while an occupant of a motor vehicle owned or registered by the employer, shall receive personal protection insurance benefits to which the employee is entitled from the insurer of the furnished vehicle.

(4) Except as provided in subsections (1) to (3), a person suffering accidental bodily injury arising from a motor vehicle accident while an occupant of a motor vehicle shall claim personal protection insurance benefits from insurers in the following order of priority:

(a) The insurer of the owner or registrant of the vehicle occupied.

(b) The insurer of the operator of the vehicle occupied.

(5) A person suffering accidental bodily injury arising from a motor vehicle accident which shows evidence of the involvement of a motor vehicle while an operator or passenger of a motorcycle shall claim personal protection insurance benefits from insurers in the following order of priority:

(a) The insurer of the owner or registrant of the motor vehicle involved in the accident.

(b) The insurer of the operator of the motor vehicle involved in the accident.

(c) The motor vehicle insurer of the operator of the motorcycle involved in the accident.

(d) The motor vehicle insurer of the owner or registrant of the motorcycle involved in the accident.

(6) If 2 or more insurers are in the same order of priority to provide personal protection insurance benefits under subsection (5), an insurer paying benefits due is entitled to partial recoupment from the other insurers in the same order of priority, together with a reasonable amount of partial recoupment of the expense of processing the claim, in order to accomplish equitable distribution of the loss among all of the insurers.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 1975, Act 137, Imd. Eff. July 3, 1975 ;-- Am. 1976, Act 356, Imd. Eff. Dec. 21, 1976 ;-- Am. 1977, Act 53, Imd. Eff. July 5, 1977 ;-- Am. 1980, Act 445, Imd. Eff. Jan. 15, 1981 ;-- Am. 1984, Act 372, Imd. Eff. Dec. 27, 1984 ;-- Am. 2002, Act 38, Imd. Eff. Mar. 7, 2002
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
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© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3115 Priorities as to claims of persons not occupants of vehicle; partial recoupment; limitation on benefits.

Sec. 3115.

(1) Except as provided in subsection (1) of section 3114, a person suffering accidental bodily injury while not an occupant of a motor vehicle shall claim personal protection insurance benefits from insurers in the following order of priority:

(a) Insurers of owners or registrants of motor vehicles involved in the accident.

(b) Insurers of operators of motor vehicles involved in the accident.

(2) When 2 or more insurers are in the same order of priority to provide personal protection insurance benefits an insurer paying benefits due is entitled to partial recoupment from the other insurers in the same order of priority, together with a reasonable amount of partial recoupment of the expense of processing the claim, in order to accomplish equitable distribution of the loss among such insurers.

(3) A limit upon the amount of personal protection insurance benefits available because of accidental bodily injury to 1 person arising from 1 motor vehicle accident shall be determined without regard to the number of policies applicable to the accident.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973
Constitutionality: The legislative scheme which allows motorcyclists to receive no-fault benefits for personal injuries without requiring them to maintain no-fault security does not deny automobile drivers equal protection or due process of law. Underhill v Safeco Insurance Company, 407 Mich 175; 284 NW2d 463 (1979).
Compiler's Notes: Act 143 of 1993, which amended this section, was submitted to the people by referendum petition (as Proposal C) and rejected by a majority of the votes cast at the November 8, 1994, general election.
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3116 Value of claim in tort; subtraction from or reimbursement for benefits.

Sec. 3116.

(1) A subtraction from personal protection insurance benefits shall not be made because of the value of a claim in tort based on the same accidental bodily injury.

(2) A subtraction from or reimbursement for personal protection insurance benefits paid or payable under this chapter shall be made only if recovery is realized upon a tort claim arising from an accident occurring outside this state, a tort claim brought within this state against the owner or operator of a motor vehicle with respect to which the security required by section 3101 (3) and (4) was not in effect, or a tort claim brought within this state based on intentionally caused harm to persons or property, and shall be made only to the extent that the recovery realized by the claimant is for damages for which the claimant has received or would otherwise be entitled to receive personal protection insurance benefits. A subtraction shall be made only to the extent of the recovery, exclusive of reasonable attorneys' fees and other reasonable expenses incurred in effecting the recovery. If personal protection insurance benefits have already been received, the claimant shall repay to the insurers out of the recovery a sum equal to the benefits received, but not more than the recovery exclusive of reasonable attorneys' fees and other reasonable expenses incurred in effecting the recovery. The insurer shall have a lien on the recovery to this extent. A recovery by an injured person or his or her estate for loss suffered by the person shall not be subtracted in calculating benefits due a dependent after the death and a recovery by a dependent for loss suffered by the dependent after the death shall not be subtracted in calculating benefits due the injured person.

(3) A personal protection insurer with a right of reimbursement under subsection (1), if suffering loss from inability to collect reimbursement out of a payment received by a claimant upon a tort claim is entitled to indemnity from a person who, with notice of the insurer's interest, made the payment to the claimant without making the claimant and the insurer joint payees as their interests may appear or without obtaining the insurer's consent to a different method of payment.

(4) A subtraction or reimbursement shall not be due the claimant's insurer from that portion of any recovery to the extent that recovery is realized for noneconomic loss as provided in section 3135(1) and (2)(b) or for allowable expenses, work loss, and survivor's loss as defined in sections 3107 to 3110 in excess of the amount recovered by the claimant from his or her insurer.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 1978, Act 461, Imd. Eff. Oct. 16, 1978
Compiler's Notes: Act 143 of 1993, which amended this section, was submitted to the people by referendum petition (as Proposal C) and rejected by a majority of the votes cast at the November 8, 1994, general election.
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3121 Liability for accidental damage to tangible property.

Sec. 3121.

(1) Under property protection insurance an insurer is liable to pay benefits for accidental damage to tangible property arising out of the ownership, operation, maintenance, or use of a motor vehicle as a motor vehicle subject to the provisions of this section and sections 3123, 3125, and 3127. However, accidental damage to tangible property does not include accidental damage to tangible property, other than the insured motor vehicle, that occurs within the course of a business of repairing, servicing, or otherwise maintaining motor vehicles.

(2) Property protection insurance benefits are due under the conditions stated in this chapter without regard to fault.

(3) Damage to tangible property consists of physical injury to or destruction of the property and loss of use of the property so injured or destroyed.

(4) Damage to tangible property is accidental, as to a person claiming property protection insurance benefits, unless it is suffered or caused intentionally by the claimant. Even though a person knows that damage to tangible property is substantially certain to be caused by his or her act or omission, he or she does not cause or suffer such damage intentionally if he or she acts or refrains from acting for the purpose of averting injury to any person, including himself or herself, or for the purpose of averting damage to tangible property.

(5) Property protection insurance benefits consist of the lesser of reasonable repair costs or replacement costs less depreciation and, if applicable, the value of loss of use. However, property protection insurance benefits paid under 1 policy for damage to all tangible property arising from 1 accident shall not exceed $1,000,000.00.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 1993, Act 290, Imd. Eff. Dec. 28, 1993
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3123 Exclusions from property protection insurance benefits.

Sec. 3123.

(1) Damage to the following kinds of property is excluded from property protection insurance benefits:

(a) Vehicles and their contents, including trailers, operated or designed for operation upon a public highway by power other than muscular power, unless the vehicle is parked in a manner as not to cause unreasonable risk of the damage which occurred.

(b) Property owned by a person named in a property protection insurance policy, the person's spouse or a relative of either domiciled in the same household, if the person named, the person's spouse, or the relative was the owner, registrant, or operator of a vehicle involved in the motor vehicle accident out of which the property damage arose.

(2) Property protection insurance benefits are not payable for property damage arising from motor vehicle accidents occurring outside the state.

(3) Property protection insurance benefits are not payable for property damage to utility transmission lines, wires, or cables arising from the failure of a municipality, utility company, or cable television company to comply with the requirements of section 16 of Act No. 368 of the Public Acts of 1925, being section 247.186 of the Michigan Compiled Laws.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 1978, Act 65, Imd. Eff. Mar. 14, 1978
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3125 Priorities in claiming property protection benefits.

Sec. 3125.

A person suffering accidental property damage shall claim property protection insurance benefits from insurers in the following order of priority: insurers of owners or registrants of vehicles involved in the accident; and insurers of operators of vehicles involved in the accident.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3127 Distribution of loss, reimbursement, and indemnification among property protection insurers.

Sec. 3127.

The provisions for distribution of loss and for reimbursement and indemnification among personal protection insurers as set forth in subsection (2) of section 3115 and in section 3116 also applies to property protection insurers.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3131 Residual liability insurance; coverage.

Sec. 3131.

(1) Residual liability insurance shall cover bodily injury and property damage which occurs within the United States, its territories and possessions, or in Canada. This insurance shall afford coverage equivalent to that required as evidence of automobile liability insurance under the financial responsibility laws of the place in which the injury or damage occurs. In this state this insurance shall afford coverage for automobile liability retained by section 3135.

(2) This section shall not require coverage in this state other than that required by section 3009(1). This section shall apply to all insurance contracts in force as of October 1, 1973, or entered into after that date.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 1978, Act 460, Imd. Eff. Oct. 16, 1978
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3135 Tort liability for noneconomic loss; "serious impairment of body function" defined.

Sec. 3135.

(1) A person remains subject to tort liability for noneconomic loss caused by his or her ownership, maintenance, or use of a motor vehicle only if the injured person has suffered death, serious impairment of body function, or permanent serious disfigurement.

(2) For a cause of action for damages pursuant to subsection (1) filed on or after July 26, 1996, all of the following apply:

(a) The issues of whether the injured person has suffered serious impairment of body function or permanent serious disfigurement are questions of law for the court if the court finds either of the following:

(i) There is no factual dispute concerning the nature and extent of the person's injuries.

(ii) There is a factual dispute concerning the nature and extent of the person's injuries, but the dispute is not material to the determination whether the person has suffered a serious impairment of body function or permanent serious disfigurement. However, for a closed-head injury, a question of fact for the jury is created if a licensed allopathic or osteopathic physician who regularly diagnoses or treats closed-head injuries testifies under oath that there may be a serious neurological injury.

(b) Damages shall be assessed on the basis of comparative fault, except that damages shall not be assessed in favor of a party who is more than 50% at fault.

(c) Damages shall not be assessed in favor of a party who was operating his or her own vehicle at the time the injury occurred and did not have in effect for that motor vehicle the security required by section 3101 at the time the injury occurred.

(3) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, tort liability arising from the ownership, maintenance, or use within this state of a motor vehicle with respect to which the security required by section 3101 was in effect is abolished except as to:

(a) Intentionally caused harm to persons or property. Even though a person knows that harm to persons or property is substantially certain to be caused by his or her act or omission, the person does not cause or suffer that harm intentionally if he or she acts or refrains from acting for the purpose of averting injury to any person, including himself or herself, or for the purpose of averting damage to tangible property.

(b) Damages for noneconomic loss as provided and limited in subsections (1) and (2).

(c) Damages for allowable expenses, work loss, and survivor's loss as defined in sections 3107 to 3110 in excess of the daily, monthly, and 3-year limitations contained in those sections. The party liable for damages is entitled to an exemption reducing his or her liability by the amount of taxes that would have been payable on account of income the injured person would have received if he or she had not been injured.

(d) Damages for economic loss by a nonresident in excess of the personal protection insurance benefits provided under section 3163(4). Damages under this subdivision are not recoverable to the extent that benefits covering the same loss are available from other sources, regardless of the nature or number of benefit sources available and regardless of the nature or form of the benefits.

(e) Damages up to $1,000.00 to a motor vehicle, to the extent that the damages are not covered by insurance. An action for damages under this subdivision shall be conducted as provided in subsection (4).

(4) All of the following apply to an action for damages under subsection (3)(e):

(a) Damages shall be assessed on the basis of comparative fault, except that damages shall not be assessed in favor of a party who is more than 50% at fault.

(b) Liability is not a component of residual liability, as prescribed in section 3131, for which maintenance of security is required by this act.

(c) The action shall be commenced, whenever legally possible, in the small claims division of the district court or the municipal court. If the defendant or plaintiff removes the action to a higher court and does not prevail, the judge may assess costs.

(d) A decision of the court is not res judicata in any proceeding to determine any other liability arising from the same circumstances that gave rise to the action.

(e) Damages shall not be assessed if the damaged motor vehicle was being operated at the time of the damage without the security required by section 3101.

(5) As used in this section, "serious impairment of body function" means an objectively manifested impairment of an important body function that affects the person's general ability to lead his or her normal life.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 1979, Act 145, Imd. Eff. Nov. 13, 1979 ;-- Am. 1979, Act 147, Imd. Eff. Nov. 13, 1979 ;-- Am. 1995, Act 222, Eff. Mar. 28, 1996 ;-- Am. 2002, Act 697, Eff. Mar. 31, 2003 ;-- Am. 2012, Act 158, Eff. Oct. 1, 2012
Compiler's Notes: Act 143 of 1993, which amended this section, was submitted to the people by referendum petition (as Proposal C) and rejected by a majority of the votes cast at the November 8, 1994, general election.
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3141 Notice of accident.

Sec. 3141.

An insurer may require written notice to be given as soon as practicable after an accident involving a motor vehicle with respect to which the policy affords the security required by this chapter.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3142 Personal protection benefits payable as loss accrues; overdue benefits.

Sec. 3142.

(1) Personal protection insurance benefits are payable as loss accrues.

(2) Personal protection insurance benefits are overdue if not paid within 30 days after an insurer receives reasonable proof of the fact and of the amount of loss sustained. If reasonable proof is not supplied as to the entire claim, the amount supported by reasonable proof is overdue if not paid within 30 days after the proof is received by the insurer. Any part of the remainder of the claim that is later supported by reasonable proof is overdue if not paid within 30 days after the proof is received by the insurer. For the purpose of calculating the extent to which benefits are overdue, payment shall be treated as made on the date a draft or other valid instrument was placed in the United States mail in a properly addressed, postpaid envelope, or, if not so posted, on the date of delivery.

(3) An overdue payment bears simple interest at the rate of 12% per annum.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973
Compiler's Notes: Act 143 of 1993, which amended this section, was submitted to the people by referendum petition (as Proposal C) and rejected by a majority of the votes cast at the November 8, 1994, general election.
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3143 Assignment of right to future benefits void.

Sec. 3143.

An agreement for assignment of a right to benefits payable in the future is void.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3145 Limitation of actions for recovery of personal or property protection benefits; notice of injury.

Sec. 3145.

(1) An action for recovery of personal protection insurance benefits payable under this chapter for accidental bodily injury may not be commenced later than 1 year after the date of the accident causing the injury unless written notice of injury as provided herein has been given to the insurer within 1 year after the accident or unless the insurer has previously made a payment of personal protection insurance benefits for the injury. If the notice has been given or a payment has been made, the action may be commenced at any time within 1 year after the most recent allowable expense, work loss or survivor's loss has been incurred. However, the claimant may not recover benefits for any portion of the loss incurred more than 1 year before the date on which the action was commenced. The notice of injury required by this subsection may be given to the insurer or any of its authorized agents by a person claiming to be entitled to benefits therefor, or by someone in his behalf. The notice shall give the name and address of the claimant and indicate in ordinary language the name of the person injured and the time, place and nature of his injury.

(2) An action for recovery of property protection insurance benefits shall not be commenced later than 1 year after the accident.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973
Compiler's Notes: Act 143 of 1993, which amended this section, was submitted to the people by referendum petition (as Proposal C) and rejected by a majority of the votes cast at the November 8, 1994, general election.
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3146 Limitation of action by insurer for recovery or indemnity.

Sec. 3146.

An action by an insurer to enforce its rights of recovery or indemnity under section 3116 may not be commenced later than 1 year after payment has been received by a claimant upon a tort claim with respect to which the insurer has a right of reimbursement or recovery under section 3116.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3148 Attorney's fee.

Sec. 3148.

(1) An attorney is entitled to a reasonable fee for advising and representing a claimant in an action for personal or property protection insurance benefits which are overdue. The attorney's fee shall be a charge against the insurer in addition to the benefits recovered, if the court finds that the insurer unreasonably refused to pay the claim or unreasonably delayed in making proper payment.

(2) An insurer may be allowed by a court an award of a reasonable sum against a claimant as an attorney's fee for the insurer's attorney in defense against a claim that was in some respect fraudulent or so excessive as to have no reasonable foundation. To the extent that personal or property protection insurance benefits are then due or thereafter come due to the claimant because of loss resulting from the injury on which the claim is based, such a fee may be treated as an offset against such benefits; also, judgment may be entered against the claimant for any amount of a fee awarded against him and not offset in this way or otherwise paid.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3151 Submission to mental or physical examination.

Sec. 3151.

When the mental or physical condition of a person is material to a claim that has been or may be made for past or future personal protection insurance benefits, the person shall submit to mental or physical examination by physicians. A personal protection insurer may include reasonable provisions in a personal protection insurance policy for mental and physical examination of persons claiming personal protection insurance benefits.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3152 Report of mental or physical examination.

Sec. 3152.

If requested by a person examined, a party causing an examination to be made shall deliver to him a copy of every written report concerning the examination rendered by an examining physician, at least 1 of which reports shall set out his findings and conclusions in detail. After such request and delivery, the party causing the examination to be made is entitled upon request to receive from the person examined every written report available to him or his representative concerning any examination relevant to the claim, previously or thereafter made, of the same mental or physical condition, and the names and addresses of physicians and medical care facilities rendering diagnoses or treatment in regard to the injury or to a relevant past injury, and shall authorize the insurer to inspect and copy records of physicians, hospitals, clinics or other medical facilities relevant to the claim. By requesting and obtaining a report of the examination so ordered or by taking the deposition of the examiner, the person examined waives any privilege he may have, in relation to the claim for benefits, regarding the testimony of every other person who has examined or may thereafter examine him in respect of the same mental or physical condition.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3153 Court orders as to noncompliance with MCL 500.3151 and 500.3152.

Sec. 3153.

A court may make such orders in regard to the refusal to comply with sections 3151 and 3152 as are just, except that an order shall not be entered directing the arrest of a person for disobeying an order to submit to a physical or mental examination. The orders that may be made in regard to such a refusal include, but are not limited to:

(a) An order that the mental or physical condition of the disobedient person shall be taken to be established for the purposes of the claim in accordance with the contention of the party obtaining the order.

(b) An order refusing to allow the disobedient person to support or oppose designated claims or defenses, or prohibiting him from introducing evidence of mental or physical condition.

(c) An order rendering judgment by default against the disobedient person as to his entire claim or a designated part of it.

(d) An order requiring the disobedient person to reimburse the insurer for reasonable attorneys' fees and expenses incurred in defense against the claim.

(e) An order requiring delivery of a report, in conformity with section 3152, on such terms as are just, and if a physician fails or refuses to make the report a court may exclude his testimony if offered at trial.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3157 Charges for products, services, and accommodations where treatment rendered.

Sec. 3157.

A physician, hospital, clinic or other person or institution lawfully rendering treatment to an injured person for an accidental bodily injury covered by personal protection insurance, and a person or institution providing rehabilitative occupational training following the injury, may charge a reasonable amount for the products, services and accommodations rendered. The charge shall not exceed the amount the person or institution customarily charges for like products, services and accommodations in cases not involving insurance.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973
Compiler's Notes: Act 143 of 1993, which amended this section, was submitted to the people by referendum petition (as Proposal C) and rejected by a majority of the votes cast at the November 8, 1994, general election.
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3158 Statement of earnings; report and records from medical institution.

Sec. 3158.

(1) An employer, when a request is made by a personal protection insurer against whom a claim has been made, shall furnish forthwith, in a form approved by the commissioner of insurance, a sworn statement of the earnings since the time of the accidental bodily injury and for a reasonable period before the injury, of the person upon whose injury the claim is based.

(2) A physician, hospital, clinic or other medical institution providing, before or after an accidental bodily injury upon which a claim for personal protection insurance benefits is based, any product, service or accommodation in relation to that or any other injury, or in relation to a condition claimed to be connected with that or any other injury, if requested to do so by the insurer against whom the claim has been made, (a) shall furnish forthwith a written report of the history, condition, treatment and dates and costs of treatment of the injured person and (b) shall produce forthwith and permit inspection and copying of its records regarding the history, condition, treatment and dates and costs of treatment.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3159 Discovery.

Sec. 3159.

In a dispute regarding an insurer's right to discovery of facts about an injured person's earnings or about his history, condition, treatment and dates and costs of treatment, a court may enter an order for the discovery. The order may be made only on motion for good cause shown and upon notice to all persons having an interest, and shall specify the time, place, manner, conditions and scope of the discovery. A court, in order to protect against annoyance, embarrassment or oppression, as justice requires, may enter an order refusing discovery or specifying conditions of discovery and may order payments of costs and expenses of the proceeding, including reasonable fees for the appearance of attorneys at the proceedings, as justice requires.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3163 Certification by admitted and nonadmitted insurers as to protection of out-of-state resident; rights and immunities of insurer and insureds; benefits to out-of-state resident; limitation.

Sec. 3163.

(1) An insurer authorized to transact automobile liability insurance and personal and property protection insurance in this state shall file and maintain a written certification that any accidental bodily injury or property damage occurring in this state arising from the ownership, operation, maintenance, or use of a motor vehicle as a motor vehicle by an out-of-state resident who is insured under its automobile liability insurance policies, is subject to the personal and property protection insurance system under this act.

(2) A nonadmitted insurer may voluntarily file the certification described in subsection (1).

(3) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (4), if a certification filed under subsection (1) or (2) applies to accidental bodily injury or property damage, the insurer and its insureds with respect to that injury or damage have the rights and immunities under this act for personal and property protection insureds, and claimants have the rights and benefits of personal and property protection insurance claimants, including the right to receive benefits from the electing insurer as if it were an insurer of personal and property protection insurance applicable to the accidental bodily injury or property damage.

(4) If an insurer of an out-of-state resident is required to provide benefits under subsections (1) to (3) to that out-of-state resident for accidental bodily injury for an accident in which the out-of-state resident was not an occupant of a motor vehicle registered in this state, the insurer is only liable for the amount of ultimate loss sustained up to $500,000.00. Benefits under this subsection are not recoverable to the extent that benefits covering the same loss are available from other sources, regardless of the nature or number of benefit sources available and regardless of the nature or form of the benefits.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 2002, Act 697, Eff. Mar. 31, 2003
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3171 Assigned claims plan; organization and maintenance; participation; costs; rules; adoption and maintenance by Michigan automobile insurance placement facility; approval of plan; amendments; provisions; report; definitions.

Sec. 3171.

(1) Until an assigned claims plan is approved under subsection (3), the secretary of state shall organize and maintain an assigned claims facility and plan. A self-insurer and insurer writing insurance as provided by this chapter in this state shall participate in the assigned claims plan. Costs incurred in the operation of the facility and the plan shall be allocated fairly among insurers and self-insurers. The secretary of state shall promulgate rules to implement the facility and plan in accordance with and subject to the administrative procedures act of 1969, 1969 PA 306, MCL 24.201 to 24.328. After an assigned claims plan is approved under subsection (3), the secretary of state shall continue to maintain the assigned claims facility and plan organized under this subsection as required by the plan approved under subsection (3).

(2) The Michigan automobile insurance placement facility shall adopt and maintain an assigned claims plan. A self-insurer or insurer writing insurance as provided by this chapter in this state shall participate in the assigned claims plan. Costs incurred in the administration of the assigned claims plan shall be allocated fairly among insurers and self-insurers. On approval under subsection (3), the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility shall implement the assigned claims plan.

(3) By August 1, 2012, the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility board of governors shall adopt an assigned claims plan by majority vote and shall submit it to the commissioner for his or her approval. The commissioner shall review the plan within 30 days and respond in writing as provided in this subsection. If the commissioner finds that the plan meets the requirements of this chapter, he or she shall approve it. If the commissioner finds that the plan fails to meet the requirements of this chapter, he or she shall state in what respects the plan is deficient and shall afford the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility board of governors 10 days within which to correct the deficiency. If the commissioner and the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility board of governors fail to agree that the plan submitted, with any corrections, meets the requirements of this chapter, either party to the controversy may submit the issue to the circuit court for Ingham county for a determination. If the commissioner fails to render a written decision on the assigned claims plan within 30 days after receipt of the plan, the plan shall be considered approved. The Michigan automobile insurance placement facility shall forward a plan approved under this subsection to the secretary of state. The plan takes effect on approval by the commissioner.

(4) Amendments to the assigned claims plan approved under subsection (3) shall be adopted by the board of governors and approved by the commissioner as provided in subsection (3). Until the date established in the plan under subsection (5)(c), the board of governors shall give the secretary of state advance notice of any proposed amendments to the plan.

(5) The plan adopted under subsection (3) shall include all of the following:

(a) The date on and after which all claims for benefits through the assigned claims plan under section 3172 shall be filed with the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility.

(b) The date by which existing claims that have been assigned under the plan maintained by the secretary of state under subsection (1) will be transferred to the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility to be included in and administered under the adopted plan.

(c) A date by which all functions of the assigned claims plan maintained by the secretary of state, with the exception of driver license and vehicle sanctions, will be transferred to the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility.

(d) Requirements for the transfer of records relating to assigned claims from the secretary of state to the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility and the disposition by the secretary of state of records relating to assigned claims.

(e) Reimbursement of the secretary of state by the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility for all of the following:

(i) Expenses of developing the plan under subsection (6).

(ii)Expenses of transferring operations from the assigned claims facility to the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility.

(iii) Expenses incurred by the secretary of state after the transfer of operations from the assigned claims facility to the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility for operations performed by the secretary of state on behalf of the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility.

(6) The secretary of state and the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility shall cooperate and mutually develop the aspects of the plan to be adopted under subsection (3) that are required under subsection (5).

(7) The secretary of state shall provide the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility with all information necessary for the operation of the assigned claims fund.

(8) One year after the date established under subsection (5)(c), the commissioner shall report in writing to the senate and house of representatives standing committees on insurance issues on the cost of the transfer of the assigned claims plan to the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility and the effectiveness of operations under the new plan.

(9) As used in this section:

(a) "Michigan automobile insurance placement facility" means the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility created under chapter 33.

(b) "Michigan automobile insurance placement facility board of governors" means the board of governors created under section 3310.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 1972, Act 345, Imd. Eff. Jan. 9, 1973 ;-- Am. 2012, Act 204, Imd. Eff. June 27, 2012
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance
Admin Rule: R 11.101 et seq. of the Michigan Administrative Code.


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3172 Conditions to obtaining personal protection insurance benefits through assigned claims plan; collection of unpaid benefits; reimbursement from defaulting insurers; reduction of benefits; applicability of subsection (2); definitions; effect of dispute between insurers.

Sec. 3172.

(1) A person entitled to claim because of accidental bodily injury arising out of the ownership, operation, maintenance, or use of a motor vehicle as a motor vehicle in this state may obtain personal protection insurance benefits through the assigned claims plan if no personal protection insurance is applicable to the injury, no personal protection insurance applicable to the injury can be identified, the personal protection insurance applicable to the injury cannot be ascertained because of a dispute between 2 or more automobile insurers concerning their obligation to provide coverage or the equitable distribution of the loss, or the only identifiable personal protection insurance applicable to the injury is, because of financial inability of 1 or more insurers to fulfill their obligations, inadequate to provide benefits up to the maximum prescribed. In that case, unpaid benefits due or coming due may be collected under the assigned claims plan and the insurer to which the claim is assigned is entitled to reimbursement from the defaulting insurers to the extent of their financial responsibility.

(2) Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, personal protection insurance benefits, including benefits arising from accidents occurring before March 29, 1985, payable through the assigned claims plan shall be reduced to the extent that benefits covering the same loss are available from other sources, regardless of the nature or number of benefit sources available and regardless of the nature or form of the benefits, to a person claiming personal protection insurance benefits through the assigned claims plan. This subsection only applies if the personal protection insurance benefits are payable through the assigned claims plan because no personal protection insurance is applicable to the injury, no personal protection insurance applicable to the injury can be identified, or the only identifiable personal protection insurance applicable to the injury is, because of financial inability of 1 or more insurers to fulfill their obligations, inadequate to provide benefits up to the maximum prescribed. As used in this subsection, "sources" and "benefit sources" do not include the program for medical assistance for the medically indigent under the social welfare act, 1939 PA 280, MCL 400.1 to 400.119b, or insurance under the health insurance for the aged act, title XVIII of the social security act, 42 USC 1395 to 1395kkk-1.

(3) If the obligation to provide personal protection insurance benefits cannot be ascertained because of a dispute between 2 or more automobile insurers concerning their obligation to provide coverage or the equitable distribution of the loss, and if a method of voluntary payment of benefits cannot be agreed upon among or between the disputing insurers, all of the following apply:

(a) The insurers who are parties to the dispute shall, or the claimant may, immediately notify the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility of their inability to determine their statutory obligations.

(b) The claim shall be assigned by the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility to an insurer and the insurer shall immediately provide personal protection insurance benefits to the claimant or claimants entitled to benefits.

(c) An action shall be immediately commenced on behalf of the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility by the insurer to whom the claim is assigned in circuit court to declare the rights and duties of any interested party.

(d) The insurer to whom the claim is assigned shall join as parties defendant to the action commenced under subdivision (c) each insurer disputing either the obligation to provide personal protection insurance benefits or the equitable distribution of the loss among the insurers.

(e) The circuit court shall declare the rights and duties of any interested party whether or not other relief is sought or could be granted.

(f) After hearing the action, the circuit court shall determine the insurer or insurers, if any, obligated to provide the applicable personal protection insurance benefits and the equitable distribution, if any, among the insurers obligated, and shall order reimbursement to the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility from the insurer or insurers to the extent of the responsibility as determined by the court. The reimbursement ordered under this subdivision shall include all benefits and costs paid or incurred by the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility and all benefits and costs paid or incurred by insurers determined not to be obligated to provide applicable personal protection insurance benefits, including reasonable, actually incurred attorney fees and interest at the rate prescribed in section 3175 as of December 31 of the year preceding the determination of the circuit court.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 1972, Act 345, Imd. Eff. Jan. 9, 1973 ;-- Am. 1984, Act 426, Eff. Mar. 29, 1985 ;-- Am. 2012, Act 204, Eff. Sept. 1, 2012
Compiler's Notes: Act 143 of 1993, which amended this section, was submitted to the people by referendum petition (as Proposal C) and rejected by a majority of the votes cast at the November 8, 1994, general election.Enacting section 1 of Act 204 of 2012 provides:"Enacting section 1. Sections 3172, 3173a, 3174, and 3175 of the insurance code of 1956, 1956 PA 218, MCL 500.3172, 500.3173a, 500.3174, and 500.3175, as amended by this amendatory act, take effect on the date the assigned claims plan is approved by the insurance commissioner under section 3171(3) of the insurance code of 1956, 1956 PA 218, MCL 500.3171."
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3173 Certain persons disqualified from receiving benefits under assigned claims plans.

Sec. 3173.

A person who because of a limitation or exclusion in sections 3105 to 3116 is disqualified from receiving personal protection insurance benefits under a policy otherwise applying to his accidental bodily injury is also disqualified from receiving benefits under the assigned claims plan.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3173a Eligibility for benefits; initial determination; denial; notice; false statement.

Sec. 3173a.

(1) The Michigan automobile insurance placement facility shall make an initial determination of a claimant's eligibility for benefits under the assigned claims plan and shall deny an obviously ineligible claim. The claimant shall be notified promptly in writing of the denial and the reasons for the denial.

(2) A person who presents or causes to be presented an oral or written statement, including computer-generated information, as part of or in support of a claim to the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility for payment or another benefit knowing that the statement contains false information concerning a fact or thing material to the claim commits a fraudulent insurance act under section 4503 that is subject to the penalties imposed under section 4511. A claim that contains or is supported by a fraudulent insurance act as described in this subsection is ineligible for payment or benefits under the assigned claims plan.


History: Add. 1984, Act 426, Eff. Mar. 29, 1985 ;-- Am. 2012, Act 204, Eff. Sept. 1, 2012
Compiler's Notes: Enacting section 1 of Act 204 of 2012 provides:"Enacting section 1. Sections 3172, 3173a, 3174, and 3175 of the insurance code of 1956, 1956 PA 218, MCL 500.3172, 500.3173a, 500.3174, and 500.3175, as amended by this amendatory act, take effect on the date the assigned claims plan is approved by the insurance commissioner under section 3171(3) of the insurance code of 1956, 1956 PA 218, MCL 500.3171."
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3174 Notice of claim through assigned claims plan; assignment of claim; notice to claimant; commencement of action by claimant.

Sec. 3174.

A person claiming through the assigned claims plan shall notify the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility of his or her claim within the time that would have been allowed for filing an action for personal protection insurance benefits if identifiable coverage applicable to the claim had been in effect. The Michigan automobile insurance placement facility shall promptly assign the claim in accordance with the plan and notify the claimant of the identity and address of the insurer to which the claim is assigned. An action by the claimant shall not be commenced more than 30 days after receipt of notice of the assignment or the last date on which the action could have been commenced against an insurer of identifiable coverage applicable to the claim, whichever is later.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 1972, Act 345, Imd. Eff. Jan. 9, 1973 ;-- Am. 2012, Act 204, Eff. Sept. 1, 2012
Compiler's Notes: Enacting section 1 of Act 204 of 2012 provides:"Enacting section 1. Sections 3172, 3173a, 3174, and 3175 of the insurance code of 1956, 1956 PA 218, MCL 500.3172, 500.3173a, 500.3174, and 500.3175, as amended by this amendatory act, take effect on the date the assigned claims plan is approved by the insurance commissioner under section 3171(3) of the insurance code of 1956, 1956 PA 218, MCL 500.3171."
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3175 Rules for assignment of claims; duties of insurer to whom claims assigned; compromises and settlements; procedures; limitation on action to enforce rights; interest on delinquent payments; installment payments; default.

Sec. 3175.

(1) The assignment of claims under the assigned claims plan shall be made according to procedures established in the assigned claims plan that assure fair allocation of the burden of assigned claims among insurers doing business in this state on a basis reasonably related to the volume of automobile liability and personal protection insurance they write on motor vehicles or the number of self-insured motor vehicles. An insurer to whom claims have been assigned shall make prompt payment of loss in accordance with this act. An insurer is entitled to reimbursement by the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility for the payments, the established loss adjustment cost, and an amount determined by use of the average annual 90-day United States treasury bill yield rate, as reported by the council of economic advisers as of December 31 of the year for which reimbursement is sought, as follows:

(a) For the calendar year in which claims are paid by the insurer, the amount shall be determined by applying the specified annual yield rate specified in this subsection to 1/2 of the total claims payments and loss adjustment costs.

(b) For the period from the end of the calendar year in which claims are paid by the insurer to the date payments for the operation of the assigned claims plan are due, the amount shall be determined by applying the annual yield rate specified in this subsection to the total claims payments and loss adjustment costs multiplied by a fraction, the denominator of which is 365 and the numerator of which is equal to the number of days that have elapsed between the end of the calendar year and the date payments for the operation of the assigned claims plan are due.

(2) The insurer to whom claims have been assigned shall preserve and enforce rights to indemnity or reimbursement against third parties and account to the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility for the rights and shall assign the rights to the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility on reimbursement by the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility. This section does not preclude an insurer from entering into reasonable compromises and settlements with third parties against whom rights to indemnity or reimbursement exist. The insurer shall account to the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility for any compromises and settlements. The procedures established under the assigned claims plan shall establish reasonable standards for enforcing rights to indemnity or reimbursement against third parties, including a standard establishing an amount below which actions to preserve and enforce the rights need not be pursued.

(3) An action to enforce rights to indemnity or reimbursement against a third party shall not be commenced after the later of 2 years after the assignment of the claim to the insurer or 1 year after the date of the last payment to the claimant.

(4) Payments for the operation of the assigned claims plan not paid by the due date shall bear interest at the rate of 20% per annum.

(5) The Michigan automobile insurance placement facility may enter into a written agreement with the debtor permitting the payment of the judgment or acknowledgment of debt in installments payable to the Michigan automobile insurance placement facility. A default in payment of installments under a judgment as agreed subjects the debtor to suspension or revocation of his or her motor vehicle license or registration in the same manner as for the failure by an uninsured motorist to pay a judgment by installments under section 3177.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 1972, Act 345, Imd. Eff. Jan. 9, 1973 ;-- Am. 1984, Act 426, Eff. Mar. 29, 1985 ;-- Am. 2012, Act 204, Eff. Sept. 1, 2012
Compiler's Notes: Enacting section 1 of Act 204 of 2012 provides:"Enacting section 1. Sections 3172, 3173a, 3174, and 3175 of the insurance code of 1956, 1956 PA 218, MCL 500.3172, 500.3173a, 500.3174, and 500.3175, as amended by this amendatory act, take effect on the date the assigned claims plan is approved by the insurance commissioner under section 3171(3) of the insurance code of 1956, 1956 PA 218, MCL 500.3171."
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3176 Taking costs into account in making and regulating rates.

Sec. 3176.

Reasonable costs incurred in the handling and disposition of assigned claims, including amounts paid pursuant to assessments under section 3171, shall be taken into account in making and regulating rates for automobile liability and personal protection insurance.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 1972, Act 345, Imd. Eff. Jan. 9, 1973
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3177 Recovery by insurer of benefits and costs from owner or registrant of uninsured motor vehicle; written agreement to pay judgment in installments; notice.

Sec. 3177.

(1) An insurer obligated to pay personal protection insurance benefits for accidental bodily injury to a person arising out of the ownership, maintenance, or use of an uninsured motor vehicle as a motor vehicle may recover such benefits paid and appropriate loss adjustment costs incurred from the owner or registrant of the uninsured motor vehicle or from his or her estate. Failure of such a person to make payment within 30 days after judgment is a ground for suspension or revocation of his or her motor vehicle registration and license as defined in section 25 of the Michigan vehicle code, Act No. 300 of the Public Acts of 1949, being section 257.25 of the Michigan Compiled Laws. An uninsured motor vehicle for the purpose of this section is a motor vehicle with respect to which security is required by sections 3101 and 3102 is not in effect at the time of the accident.

(2) The motor vehicle registration and license shall not be suspended or revoked and the motor vehicle registration and license shall be restored if the debtor enters into a written agreement with the secretary of state permitting the payment of the judgment in installments, if the payment of any installments is not in default.

(3) The secretary of state upon receipt of a certified abstract of court record of a judgment or notice from the insurer of an acknowledgment of debt shall notify the owner or registrant of an uninsured vehicle of the provisions of subsection (1) at that person's last recorded address with the secretary of state and inform that person of the right to enter into a written agreement with the secretary of state for the payment of the judgment or debt in installments.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973 ;-- Am. 1984, Act 426, Eff. Mar. 29, 1985
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan
THE INSURANCE CODE OF 1956 (EXCERPT)
Act 218 of 1956


500.3179 Act applicable October 1, 1973.

Sec. 3179.

This act applies to motor vehicle accidents occurring on or after October 1, 1973.


History: Add. 1972, Act 294, Eff. Mar. 30, 1973
Popular Name: Act 218
Popular Name: Essential Insurance
Popular Name: No-Fault Insurance


© 2009 Legislative Council, State of Michigan

Rendered 4/24/2014 02:50:02 Michigan Compiled Laws Complete Through PA 85 and includes 95, 97 & 116 of 2014
© 2014 Legislative Council, State of Michigan Courtesy of www.legislature.mi.gov