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Michigan Legislature
Michigan Compiled Laws Complete Through PA 50 of 2017
House: Adjourned until Wednesday, July 12, 2017 10:00:00 AM
Senate: Adjourned until Wednesday, June 28, 2017 10:00:00 AM

Michigan Legislature

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MCL Index

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NOTE: Dates reflect any modification to item, not necessarily a change in law.

CONSTITUTION OF MICHIGAN OF 1963 - STATE CONSTITUTION (Article I § 1 - § 0)
Constitution‑I ‑ ARTICLE I DECLARATION OF RIGHTS (Article I § 1...§ 27)
     Article I § 1 ‑ Political power.
     Article I § 2 ‑ Equal protection; discrimination.
     Article I § 3 ‑ Assembly, consultation, instruction, petition.
     Article I § 4 ‑ Freedom of worship and religious belief; appropriations.
     Article I § 5 ‑ Freedom of speech and of press.
     Article I § 6 ‑ Bearing of arms.
     Article I § 7 ‑ Military power subordinate to civil power.
     Article I § 8 ‑ Quartering of soldiers.
     Article I § 9 ‑ Slavery and involuntary servitude.
     Article I § 10 ‑ Attainder; ex post facto laws; impairment of contracts.
     Article I § 11 ‑ Searches and seizures.
     Article I § 12 ‑ Habeas corpus.
     Article I § 13 ‑ Conduct of suits in person or by counsel.
     Article I § 14 ‑ Jury trials.
     Article I § 15 ‑ Double jeopardy; bailable offenses; commencement of trial if bail denied; bail hearing; effective date.
     Article I § 16 ‑ Bail; fines; punishments; detention of witnesses.
     Article I § 17 ‑ Self-incrimination; due process of law; fair treatment at investigations.
     Article I § 18 ‑ Witnesses; competency, religious beliefs.
     Article I § 19 ‑ Libels, truth as defense.
     Article I § 20 ‑ Rights of accused in criminal prosecutions.
     Article I § 21 ‑ Imprisonment for debt.
     Article I § 22 ‑ Treason; definition, evidence.
     Article I § 23 ‑ Enumeration of rights not to deny others.
     Article I § 24 ‑ Rights of crime victims; enforcement; assessment against convicted defendants.
     Article I § 25 ‑ Marriage.
     Article I § 26 ‑ Affirmative action programs.
     Article I § 27 ‑ Human embryo and embryonic stem cell research.
Constitution‑II ‑ ARTICLE II ELECTIONS (Article II § 1...§ 10)
     Article II § 1 ‑ Qualifications of electors; residence.
     Article II § 2 ‑ Mental incompetence; imprisonment.
     Article II § 3 ‑ Presidential electors; residence.
     Article II § 4 ‑ Place and manner of elections.
     Article II § 5 ‑ Time of elections.
     Article II § 6 ‑ Voters on tax limit increases or bond issues.
     Article II § 7 ‑ Boards of canvassers.
     Article II § 8 ‑ Recalls.
     Article II § 9 ‑ Initiative and referendum; limitations; appropriations; petitions.
     Article II § 10 ‑ Limitations on terms of office of members of the United States House of Representatives and United States Senate from Michigan.
Constitution‑III ‑ ARTICLE III GENERAL GOVERNMENT (Article III § 1...§ 8)
     Article III § 1 ‑ Seat of government.
     Article III § 2 ‑ Separation of powers of government.
     Article III § 3 ‑ Great seal.
     Article III § 4 ‑ Militia.
     Article III § 5 ‑ Intergovernmental agreements; service by public officers and employees.
     Article III § 6 ‑ Internal improvements.
     Article III § 7 ‑ Common law and statutes, continuance.
     Article III § 8 ‑ Opinions on constitutionality by supreme court.
Constitution‑IV ‑ ARTICLE IV LEGISLATIVE BRANCH (Article IV § 1...§ 54)
     Article IV § 1 ‑ Legislative power.
     Article IV § 2 ‑ Senators, number, term.
     Article IV § 3 ‑ Representatives, number, term; contiguity of districts.
     Article IV § 4 ‑ Annexation or merger with a city.
     Article IV § 5 ‑ Island areas, contiguity.
     Article IV § 6 ‑ Commission on legislative apportionment.
     Article IV § 7 ‑ Legislators; qualifications, removal from district.
     Article IV § 8 ‑ Ineligibility of government officers and employees.
     Article IV § 9 ‑ Civil appointments, ineligibility of legislators.
     Article IV § 10 ‑ Legislators and state officers, government contracts, conflict of interest.
     Article IV § 11 ‑ Legislators privileged from civil arrest and civil process; limitation; questioning for speech in either house prohibited.
     Article IV § 12 ‑ State officers compensation commission.
     Article IV § 13 ‑ Legislature; time of convening, sine die adjournment, measures carried over.
     Article IV § 14 ‑ Quorum; powers of less than quorum.
     Article IV § 15 ‑ Legislative council.
     Article IV § 16 ‑ Legislature; officers, rules of procedure, expulsion of members.
     Article IV § 17 ‑ Committees; record of votes, public inspection, notice of hearings.
     Article IV § 18 ‑ Journal of proceedings; record of votes, dissents.
     Article IV § 19 ‑ Record of votes on elections and advice and consent.
     Article IV § 20 ‑ Open meetings.
     Article IV § 21 ‑ Adjournments, limitations.
     Article IV § 22 ‑ Bills.
     Article IV § 23 ‑ Style of laws.
     Article IV § 24 ‑ Laws; object, title, amendments changing purpose.
     Article IV § 25 ‑ Revision and amendment of laws; title references, publication of entire sections.
     Article IV § 26 ‑ Bills; printing, possession, reading, vote on passage.
     Article IV § 27 ‑ Laws, effective date.
     Article IV § 28 ‑ Bills, subjects at special session.
     Article IV § 29 ‑ Local or special acts.
     Article IV § 30 ‑ Appropriations; local or private purposes.
     Article IV § 31 ‑ General appropriation bills; priority, statement of estimated revenue.
     Article IV § 32 ‑ Laws imposing taxes.
     Article IV § 33 ‑ Bills passed; approval by governor or veto, reconsideration by legislature.
     Article IV § 34 ‑ Bills, referendum.
     Article IV § 35 ‑ Publication and distribution of laws and judicial decisions.
     Article IV § 36 ‑ General revision of laws; compilation of laws.
     Article IV § 37 ‑ Administrative rules, suspension by legislative committee.
     Article IV § 38 ‑ Vacancies in office.
     Article IV § 39 ‑ Continuity of government in emergencies.
     Article IV § 40 ‑ Alcoholic beverages; age requirement; liquor control commission; excise tax; local option.
     Article IV § 41 ‑ Lotteries.
     Article IV § 42 ‑ Ports and port districts; incorporation, internal.
     Article IV § 43 ‑ Bank and trust company laws.
     Article IV § 44 ‑ Trial by jury in civil cases.
     Article IV § 45 ‑ Indeterminate sentences.
     Article IV § 46 ‑ Death penalty.
     Article IV § 47 ‑ Chaplains in state institutions.
     Article IV § 48 ‑ Disputes concerning public employees.
     Article IV § 49 ‑ Hours and conditions of employment.
     Article IV § 50 ‑ Atomic and new forms of energy.
     Article IV § 51 ‑ Public health and general welfare.
     Article IV § 52 ‑ Natural resources; conservation, pollution, impairment, destruction.
     Article IV § 53 ‑ Auditor general; appointment, qualifications, term, removal, post audits.
     Article IV § 54 ‑ Limitations on terms of office of state legislators.
Constitution‑V ‑ ARTICLE V EXECUTIVE BRANCH (Article V § 1...§ 30)
     Article V § 1 ‑ Executive power.
     Article V § 2 ‑ Principal departments.
     Article V § 3 ‑ Single heads of departments; appointment, term.
     Article V § 4 ‑ Commissions or agencies for less than 2 years.
     Article V § 5 ‑ Examining or licensing board members, qualifications.
     Article V § 6 ‑ Advice and consent to appointments.
     Article V § 7 ‑ Vacancies in office; filling, senatorial disapproval of appointees.
     Article V § 8 ‑ Principal departments, supervision of governor; information from state officers.
     Article V § 9 ‑ Principal departments, location.
     Article V § 10 ‑ Removal or suspension of officers; grounds, report.
     Article V § 11 ‑ Provisional appointments to fill vacancies due to suspension.
     Article V § 12 ‑ Military powers.
     Article V § 13 ‑ Elections to fill vacancies in legislature.
     Article V § 14 ‑ Reprieves, commutations and pardons.
     Article V § 15 ‑ Extra sessions of legislature.
     Article V § 16 ‑ Legislature other than at seat of government.
     Article V § 17 ‑ Messages and recommendations to legislature.
     Article V § 18 ‑ Budget; general and deficiency appropriation bills.
     Article V § 19 ‑ Disapproval of items in appropriation bills.
     Article V § 20 ‑ Reductions in expenditures.
     Article V § 21 ‑ State elective executive officers; term, election.
     Article V § 22 ‑ Governor and lieutenant governor, qualifications.
     Article V § 23 ‑ State elective executive officers, compensation.
     Article V § 24 ‑ Executive residence.
     Article V § 25 ‑ Lieutenant governor; president of senate, tie vote, duties.
     Article V § 26 ‑ Succession to governorship.
     Article V § 27 ‑ Salary of successor.
     Article V § 28 ‑ State transportation commission; establishment; purpose; appointment, qualifications, and terms of members; director of state transportation department.
     Article V § 29 ‑ Civil rights commission; members, term, duties, appropriation.
     Article V § 30 ‑ Limitations on terms of executive officers.
Constitution‑VI ‑ ARTICLE VI JUDICIAL BRANCH (Article VI § 1...§ 30)
     Article VI § 1 ‑ Judicial power in court of justice; divisions.
     Article VI § 2 ‑ Justices of the supreme court; number, term, nomination, election.
     Article VI § 3 ‑ Chief justice; court administrator; other assistants.
     Article VI § 4 ‑ General superintending control over courts; writs; appellate jurisdiction.
     Article VI § 5 ‑ Court rules; distinctions between law and equity; master in chancery.
     Article VI § 6 ‑ Decisions and dissents; writing, contents.
     Article VI § 7 ‑ Staff; budget; salaries of justices; fees.
     Article VI § 8 ‑ Court of appeals; election of judges, divisions.
     Article VI § 9 ‑ Judges of court of appeals, terms.
     Article VI § 10 ‑ Jurisdiction, practice and procedure of court of appeals.
     Article VI § 11 ‑ Circuit courts; judicial circuits, sessions, number of judges.
     Article VI § 12 ‑ Circuit judges; nomination, election, term.
     Article VI § 13 ‑ Circuit courts; jurisdiction, writs, supervisory control over inferior courts.
     Article VI § 14 ‑ County clerks; duties, vacancies; prosecuting attorneys, vacancies.
     Article VI § 15 ‑ Probate courts; districts, jurisdiction.
     Article VI § 16 ‑ Probate judges; nomination, election, terms.
     Article VI § 17 ‑ Judicial salaries and fees.
     Article VI § 18 ‑ Salaries; uniformity, changes during term.
     Article VI § 19 ‑ Courts of record; seal, qualifications of judges.
     Article VI § 20 ‑ Removal of domicile of judge.
     Article VI § 21 ‑ Ineligibility for other office.
     Article VI § 22 ‑ Incumbent judges, affidavit of candidacy.
     Article VI § 23 ‑ Judicial vacancies, filling; appointee, term; successor; new offices.
     Article VI § 24 ‑ Incumbent judges, ballot designation.
     Article VI § 25 ‑ Removal of judges from office.
     Article VI § 26 ‑ Circuit court commissioners and justices of the peace, abolition; courts of limited jurisdiction.
     Article VI § 27 ‑ Power of appointment to public office.
     Article VI § 28 ‑ Administrative action, review.
     Article VI § 29 ‑ Conservators of the peace.
     Article VI § 30 ‑ Judicial tenure commission; selection; terms; duties; power of supreme court.
Constitution‑VII ‑ ARTICLE VII LOCAL GOVERNMENT (Article VII § 1...§ 34)
     Article VII § 1 ‑ Counties; corporate character, powers and immunities.
     Article VII § 2 ‑ County charters.
     Article VII § 3 ‑ Reduction of size of county.
     Article VII § 4 ‑ County officers; terms, combination.
     Article VII § 5 ‑ Offices at county seat.
     Article VII § 6 ‑ Sheriffs; security, responsibility for acts, ineligibility for other office.
     Article VII § 7 ‑ Boards of supervisors; members.
     Article VII § 8 ‑ Legislative, administrative, and other powers and duties of boards.
     Article VII § 9 ‑ Compensation of county officers.
     Article VII § 10 ‑ Removal of county seat.
     Article VII § 11 ‑ Indebtedness, limitation.
     Article VII § 12 ‑ Navigable streams, permission to bridge or dam.
     Article VII § 13 ‑ Consolidation of counties, approval by electors.
     Article VII § 14 ‑ Organization and consolidation of townships.
     Article VII § 15 ‑ County intervention in public utility service and rate proceedings.
     Article VII § 16 ‑ Highways, bridges, culverts, airports; road tax limitation.
     Article VII § 17 ‑ Townships; corporate character, powers and immunities.
     Article VII § 18 ‑ Township officers; term, powers and duties.
     Article VII § 19 ‑ Township public utility franchises.
     Article VII § 20 ‑ Townships, dissolution; villages as cities.
     Article VII § 21 ‑ Cities and villages; incorporation, taxes, indebtedness.
     Article VII § 22 ‑ Charters, resolutions, ordinances; enumeration of powers.
     Article VII § 23 ‑ Parks, boulevards, cemeteries, hospitals.
     Article VII § 24 ‑ Public service facilities.
     Article VII § 25 ‑ Public utilities; acquisition, franchises, sale.
     Article VII § 26 ‑ Cities and villages, loan of credit.
     Article VII § 27 ‑ Metropolitan governments and authorities.
     Article VII § 28 ‑ Governmental functions and powers; joint administration, costs and credits, transfers.
     Article VII § 29 ‑ Highways, streets, alleys, public places; control, use by public utilities.
     Article VII § 30 ‑ Franchises and licenses, duration.
     Article VII § 31 ‑ Vacation or alteration of roads, streets, alleys, public places.
     Article VII § 32 ‑ Budgets, public hearing.
     Article VII § 33 ‑ Removal of elected officers.
     Article VII § 34 ‑ Construction of constitution and law concerning counties, townships, cities, villages.
Constitution‑VIII ‑ ARTICLE VIII EDUCATION (Article VIII § 1...§ 9)
     Article VIII § 1 ‑ Encouragement of education.
     Article VIII § 2 ‑ Free public elementary and secondary schools; discrimination.
     Article VIII § 3 ‑ State board of education; duties.
     Article VIII § 4 ‑ Higher education institutions; appropriations, accounting, public sessions of boards.
     Article VIII § 5 ‑ University of Michigan, Michigan State University, Wayne State University; controlling boards.
     Article VIII § 6 ‑ Other institutions of higher education, controlling boards.
     Article VIII § 7 ‑ Community and junior colleges; state board, members, terms, vacancies.
     Article VIII § 8 ‑ Services for disabled persons.
     Article VIII § 9 ‑ Public libraries, fines.
Constitution‑IX ‑ ARTICLE IX FINANCE AND TAXATION (Article IX § 1...§ 42)
     Article IX § 1 ‑ Taxes for state expenses.
     Article IX § 2 ‑ Power of taxation, relinquishment.
     Article IX § 3 ‑ Property taxation; uniformity; assessments; limitations; classes; approval of legislature.
     Article IX § 4 ‑ Exemption of religious or educational nonprofit organizations.
     Article IX § 5 ‑ Assessment of property of public service businesses.
     Article IX § 6 ‑ Real and tangible personal property; limitation on general ad valorem taxes; adoption and alteration of separate tax limitations; exceptions to limitations; property tax on school district extending into 2 or more counties.
     Article IX § 7 ‑ Income tax.
     Article IX § 8 ‑ Sales and use taxes.
     Article IX § 9 ‑ Use of specific taxes on fuels for transportation purposes; authorization of indebtedness and issuance of obligations.
     Article IX § 10 ‑ Sales tax; distribution to local governments.
     Article IX § 11 ‑ State school aid fund; source; distribution; guarantee to local school district.
     Article IX § 12 ‑ Evidence of state indebtedness.
     Article IX § 13 ‑ Public bodies, borrowing power.
     Article IX § 14 ‑ State borrowing; short term.
     Article IX § 15 ‑ Long term borrowing by state.
     Article IX § 16 ‑ State loans to school districts.
     Article IX § 17 ‑ Payments from state treasury.
     Article IX § 18 ‑ State credit.
     Article IX § 19 ‑ Subscription to or interest in stock by state prohibited; exceptions.
     Article IX § 20 ‑ Deposit of state money in certain financial institutions; requirements.
     Article IX § 21 ‑ Accounting for public moneys.
     Article IX § 22 ‑ Examination and adjustment of claims against state.
     Article IX § 23 ‑ Financial records; statement of revenues and expenditures.
     Article IX § 24 ‑ Public pension plans and retirement systems, obligation.
     Article IX § 25 ‑ Voter approval of increased local taxes; prohibitions; emergency conditions; repayment of bonded indebtedness guaranteed; implementation of section.
     Article IX § 26 ‑ Limitation on taxes; revenue limit; refunding or transferring excess revenues; exceptions to revenue limitation; adjustment of state revenue and spending limits.
     Article IX § 27 ‑ Exceeding revenue limit; conditions.
     Article IX § 28 ‑ Limitation on expenses of state government.
     Article IX § 29 ‑ State financing of activities or services required of local government by state law.
     Article IX § 30 ‑ Reduction of state spending paid to units of local government.
     Article IX § 31 ‑ Levying tax or increasing rate of existing tax; maximum tax rate on new base; increase in assessed valuation of property; exceptions to limitations.
     Article IX § 32 ‑ Suit to enforce sections 25 to 31.
     Article IX § 33 ‑ Definitions applicable to sections 25 to 32.
     Article IX § 34 ‑ Implementation of sections 25 to 33.
     Article IX § 35 ‑ Michigan natural resources trust fund.
     Article IX § 35a ‑ Michigan state parks endowment fund.
     Article IX § 36 ‑ Tax on tobacco products; dedication of proceeds.
     Article IX § 37 ‑ Michigan veterans' trust fund.
     Article IX § 38 ‑ Michigan veterans' trust fund board of trustees; establishment.
     Article IX § 39 ‑ Michigan veterans' trust fund board of trustees; administration of trust fund.
     Article IX § 40 ‑ Michigan conservation and recreation legacy fund.
     Article IX § 41 ‑ Michigan game and fish protection trust fund.
     Article IX § 42 ‑ Michigan nongame fish and wildlife trust fund.
Constitution‑X ‑ ARTICLE X PROPERTY (Article X § 1...§ 6)
     Article X § 1 ‑ Disabilities of coverture abolished; separate property of wife; dower.
     Article X § 2 ‑ Eminent domain; compensation.
     Article X § 3 ‑ Homestead and personalty, exemption from process.
     Article X § 4 ‑ Escheats.
     Article X § 5 ‑ State lands.
     Article X § 6 ‑ Resident aliens, property rights.
Constitution‑XI ‑ ARTICLE XI PUBLIC OFFICERS AND EMPLOYMENT (Article XI § 1...§ 8)
     Article XI § 1 ‑ Oath of public officers.
     Article XI § 2 ‑ Terms of office of state and county officers.
     Article XI § 3 ‑ Extra compensation.
     Article XI § 4 ‑ Custodian of public moneys; eligibility to office, accounting.
     Article XI § 5 ‑ Classified state civil service; scope; exempted positions; appointment and terms of members of state civil service commission; state personnel director; duties of commission; collective bargaining for state police troopers and sergeants; appointments, promotions, demotions, or removals; increases or reductions in compensation; creating or abolishing positions; recommending compensation for unclassified service; appropriation; reports of expenditures; annual audit; payment for personal services; violation; injunctive or mandamus proceedings.
     Article XI § 6 ‑ Merit systems for local governments.
     Article XI § 7 ‑ Impeachment of civil officers.
     Article XI § 8 ‑ Convictions for certain felonies; eligibility for elective office or certain positions of public employment.
Constitution‑XII ‑ ARTICLE XII AMENDMENT AND REVISION (Article XII § 1...§ 4)
     Article XII § 1 ‑ Amendment by legislative proposal and vote of electors.
     Article XII § 2 ‑ Amendment by petition and vote of electors.
     Article XII § 3 ‑ General revision of constitution; submission of question, convention delegates and meeting.
     Article XII § 4 ‑ Severability.
Constitution‑Schedule ‑ ARTICLE SCHEDULE SCHEDULE AND TEMPORARY PROVISIONS
To insure the orderly transition from the constitution of 1908 to this constitution the following schedule and temporary provisions are set forth to be effective for such period as are thereby required. (Schedule § 1...§ 0)
     Schedule § 1 ‑ Recommendations by attorney general for changes in laws.
     Schedule § 2 ‑ Existing public and private rights, continuance.
     Schedule § 3 ‑ Officers, continuance in office.
     Schedule § 4 ‑ Officers elected in spring of 1963, term.
     Schedule § 5 ‑ State elective executive officers and senators, 2 and 4 year terms.
     Schedule § 6 ‑ Supreme court, reduction to 7 justices.
     Schedule § 7 ‑ Judges of probate, eligibility for re-election.
     Schedule § 8 ‑ Judicial officers, staggered terms.
     Schedule § 9 ‑ State board of education; first election, terms.
     Schedule § 10 ‑ Boards controlling higher education institutions and state board of public community and junior colleges, terms.
     Schedule § 11 ‑ Michigan State University trustees and Wayne State University governors, terms.
     Schedule § 12 ‑ Initial allocation of departments by law or executive order.
     Schedule § 13 ‑ State contracts, continuance.
     Schedule § 14 ‑ Mackinac Bridge Authority; refunding of bonds, transfer of functions to highway department.
     Schedule § 15 ‑ Submission of constitution; time, notice.
     Schedule § 16 ‑ Voters, ballots, effective date.
     Schedule SigBlock ‑ Vote Record.

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